A total of 35 homologs of the iron-sulfur flavoprotein (Isf) from Methanosarcina thermophila were identified in databases. All three domains were represented, and multiple homologs were present in several species. An unusually compact cysteine motif ligating the 4Fe-4S cluster in Isf is conserved in all of the homologs except two, in which either an aspartate or a histidine has replaced the second cysteine in the motif. A phylogenetic analysis of Isf homologs identified four subgroups, two of which were supported by bootstrap data. Three homologs from metabolically and phylogenetically diverse species in the Bacteria and Archaea domains (Af3 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Cd1 from Clostridium difficile, and Mj2 from Methanococcus jannaschii) were overproduced in Escherichia coli. Each homolog purified as a homodimer, and the UV-visible absorption spectra were nearly identical to that of Isf. After reconstitution with iron, sulfide, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) the homologs contained six to eight nonheme iron atoms and 1.6 to 1.7 FMN molecules per dimer, suggesting that two 4Fe-4S or 3Fe-4S clusters and two FMN cofactors were bound to each dimer, which is consistent with Isf data. Homologs Af3 and Mj2 were reduced by CO in reactions catalyzed by cell extract of acetate-grown M. thermophila, but Cd1 was not. Homologs Af3 and Mj2 were reduced by CO in reactions catalyzed by A. fulgidus and M. jannaschii cell extracts. Cell extract of Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzed CO reduction of Cd1. Our database sequence analyses and biochemical characterizations indicate that Isf is the prototype of a family of iron-sulfur flavoproteins that occur in members of all three domains.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology