### Abstract

Connected vehicle technology can be beneficial for traffic operations at intersections. The information provided by cars equipped with this technology can be used to design a more efficient signal control strategy. Moreover, it can be possible to control the trajectory of automated vehicles with a centralized controller. This paper builds on a previous signal control algorithm developed for connected vehicles in a simple, single intersection. It improves the previous work by (1) integrating three different stages of technology development; (2) developing a heuristics to switch the signal controls depending on the stage of technology; (3) increasing the computational efficiency with a branch and bound solution method; (4) incorporating trajectory design for automated vehicles; (5) using a Kalman filter to reduce the impact of measurement errors on the final solution. Three categories of vehicles are considered in this paper to represent different stages of this technology: conventional vehicles, connected but non-automated vehicles (connected vehicles), and automated vehicles. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal departure sequence to minimize the total delay based on position information. Within each departure sequence, the algorithm finds the optimal trajectory of automated vehicles that reduces total delay. The optimal departure sequence and trajectories are obtained by a branch and bound method, which shows the potential of generalizing this algorithm to a complex intersection. Simulations are conducted for different total flows, demand ratios and penetration rates of each technology stage (i.e. proportion of each category of vehicles). This algorithm is compared to an actuated signal control algorithm to evaluate its performance. The simulation results show an evident decrease in the total number of stops and delay when using the connected vehicle algorithm for the tested scenarios with information level of as low as 50%. Robustness of this algorithm to different input parameters and measurement noises are also evaluated. Results show that the algorithm is more sensitive to the arrival pattern in high flow scenarios. Results also show that the algorithm works well with the measurement noises. Finally, the results are used to develop a heuristic to switch between the different control algorithms, according to the total demand and penetration rate of each technology.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 109-129 |

Number of pages | 21 |

Journal | Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies |

Volume | 72 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Nov 1 2016 |

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### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Automotive Engineering
- Transportation
- Computer Science Applications

### Cite this

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*Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies*, vol. 72, pp. 109-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2016.08.009

**Isolated intersection control for various levels of vehicle technology : Conventional, connected, and automated vehicles.** / Yang, Kaidi; Guler, Sukran Ilgin; Menendez, Monica.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Isolated intersection control for various levels of vehicle technology

T2 - Conventional, connected, and automated vehicles

AU - Yang, Kaidi

AU - Guler, Sukran Ilgin

AU - Menendez, Monica

PY - 2016/11/1

Y1 - 2016/11/1

N2 - Connected vehicle technology can be beneficial for traffic operations at intersections. The information provided by cars equipped with this technology can be used to design a more efficient signal control strategy. Moreover, it can be possible to control the trajectory of automated vehicles with a centralized controller. This paper builds on a previous signal control algorithm developed for connected vehicles in a simple, single intersection. It improves the previous work by (1) integrating three different stages of technology development; (2) developing a heuristics to switch the signal controls depending on the stage of technology; (3) increasing the computational efficiency with a branch and bound solution method; (4) incorporating trajectory design for automated vehicles; (5) using a Kalman filter to reduce the impact of measurement errors on the final solution. Three categories of vehicles are considered in this paper to represent different stages of this technology: conventional vehicles, connected but non-automated vehicles (connected vehicles), and automated vehicles. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal departure sequence to minimize the total delay based on position information. Within each departure sequence, the algorithm finds the optimal trajectory of automated vehicles that reduces total delay. The optimal departure sequence and trajectories are obtained by a branch and bound method, which shows the potential of generalizing this algorithm to a complex intersection. Simulations are conducted for different total flows, demand ratios and penetration rates of each technology stage (i.e. proportion of each category of vehicles). This algorithm is compared to an actuated signal control algorithm to evaluate its performance. The simulation results show an evident decrease in the total number of stops and delay when using the connected vehicle algorithm for the tested scenarios with information level of as low as 50%. Robustness of this algorithm to different input parameters and measurement noises are also evaluated. Results show that the algorithm is more sensitive to the arrival pattern in high flow scenarios. Results also show that the algorithm works well with the measurement noises. Finally, the results are used to develop a heuristic to switch between the different control algorithms, according to the total demand and penetration rate of each technology.

AB - Connected vehicle technology can be beneficial for traffic operations at intersections. The information provided by cars equipped with this technology can be used to design a more efficient signal control strategy. Moreover, it can be possible to control the trajectory of automated vehicles with a centralized controller. This paper builds on a previous signal control algorithm developed for connected vehicles in a simple, single intersection. It improves the previous work by (1) integrating three different stages of technology development; (2) developing a heuristics to switch the signal controls depending on the stage of technology; (3) increasing the computational efficiency with a branch and bound solution method; (4) incorporating trajectory design for automated vehicles; (5) using a Kalman filter to reduce the impact of measurement errors on the final solution. Three categories of vehicles are considered in this paper to represent different stages of this technology: conventional vehicles, connected but non-automated vehicles (connected vehicles), and automated vehicles. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal departure sequence to minimize the total delay based on position information. Within each departure sequence, the algorithm finds the optimal trajectory of automated vehicles that reduces total delay. The optimal departure sequence and trajectories are obtained by a branch and bound method, which shows the potential of generalizing this algorithm to a complex intersection. Simulations are conducted for different total flows, demand ratios and penetration rates of each technology stage (i.e. proportion of each category of vehicles). This algorithm is compared to an actuated signal control algorithm to evaluate its performance. The simulation results show an evident decrease in the total number of stops and delay when using the connected vehicle algorithm for the tested scenarios with information level of as low as 50%. Robustness of this algorithm to different input parameters and measurement noises are also evaluated. Results show that the algorithm is more sensitive to the arrival pattern in high flow scenarios. Results also show that the algorithm works well with the measurement noises. Finally, the results are used to develop a heuristic to switch between the different control algorithms, according to the total demand and penetration rate of each technology.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84989204386&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84989204386&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.trc.2016.08.009

DO - 10.1016/j.trc.2016.08.009

M3 - Article

VL - 72

SP - 109

EP - 129

JO - Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies

JF - Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies

SN - 0968-090X

ER -