Item-level monitoring, response style stability, and the hard-easy effect

Roy B. Clariana, Eunsung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Cognitive and metacognitive processes during learning depend on accurate monitoring, this investigation examines the influence of immediate item-level knowledge of correct response feedback on cognition monitoring accuracy. In an optional end-of-course computer-based review lesson, participants (n = 68) were randomly assigned to groups to receive either immediate item-by-item feedback (IF) or no immediate feedback (NF). Item-by-item monitoring consisted of confidence self-reports. Two days later, participants completed a retention test (IF = NF, no significant difference). Monitoring accuracy during the review lesson was low, and contrary to expectations was significantly less with immediate feedback (IF < NF, Cohen’s d =.62). Descriptive data shows that (1) monitoring accuracy can be attributed to cues beyond actual item difficulty, (2) a hard-easy effect was observed where item difficulty was related to confidence judgements as a non-monotonic function, (3) response confidence was predicted by the Coh-Metrix dimension Word Concreteness in both the IF and NF treatments, and (4) significant autocorrelations (hysteresis) for confidence measures were observed for NF but not for IF. It seems likely that monitoring is based on multiple and sometimes competing cues, the salience of each relates in some degree to content difficulty, but that the stability of individual response styles plays a substantive role in monitoring. This investigation shows the need for new applications of technology for monitoring multiple measures on the fly to better understand SRL processes to support all learners.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)693-710
Number of pages18
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education


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