Kepler-22b

A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star

William J. Borucki, David G. Koch, Natalie Batalha, Stephen T. Bryson, Jason Rowe, Francois Fressin, Guillermo Torres, Douglas A. Caldwell, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, William D. Cochran, Edna Devore, Thomas N. Gautier, John C. Geary, Ronald Lynn Gilliland, Alan Gould, Steve B. Howell, Jon M. Jenkins, David W. Latham, Jack J. Lissauer, Geoffrey W. Marcy & 64 others Dimitar Sasselov, Alan Boss, David Charbonneau, David Ciardi, Lisa Kaltenegger, Laurance Doyle, Andrea K. Dupree, Eric B. Ford, Jonathan Fortney, Matthew J. Holman, Jason H. Steffen, Fergal Mullally, Martin Still, Jill Tarter, Sarah Ballard, Lars A. Buchhave, Josh Carter, Jessie L. Christiansen, Brice Olivier Demory, Jean Michel Désert, Courtney Dressing, Michael Endl, Daniel Fabrycky, Debra Fischer, Michael R. Haas, Christopher Henze, Elliott Horch, Andrew W. Howard, Howard Isaacson, Hans Kjeldsen, John Asher Johnson, Todd Klaus, Jeffery Kolodziejczak, Thomas Barclay, Jie Li, Søren Meibom, Andrej Prsa, Samuel N. Quinn, Elisa V. Quintana, Paul Robertson, William Sherry, Avi Shporer, Peter Tenenbaum, Susan E. Thompson, Joseph D. Twicken, Jeffrey Van Cleve, William F. Welsh, Sarbani Basu, William Chaplin, Andrea Miglio, Steven D. Kawaler, Torben Arentoft, Dennis Stello, Travis S. Metcalfe, Graham A. Verner, Christoffer Karoff, Mia Lundkvist, Mikkel N. Lund, Rasmus Handberg, Yvonne Elsworth, Saskia Hekker, Daniel Huber, Timothy R. Bedding, William Rapin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

163 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 0.060 M and 0.979 0.020 R. The depth of 492 10 ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 0.13 Re for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities (RVs) obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck I over a one-year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3σ upper limit of 124 M , safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262 K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the habitable zone of any star other than the Sun.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number120
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume745
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2012

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planets
sun
planet
stars
radii
transit
photometry
high resolution
spectroscopy
orbits
planetary mass
orbit determination
reconnaissance
radial velocity
centroids
electric batteries
spacecraft
contamination
spectrometer
spectrometers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Borucki, W. J., Koch, D. G., Batalha, N., Bryson, S. T., Rowe, J., Fressin, F., ... Rapin, W. (2012). Kepler-22b: A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star. Astrophysical Journal, 745(2), [120]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/120
Borucki, William J. ; Koch, David G. ; Batalha, Natalie ; Bryson, Stephen T. ; Rowe, Jason ; Fressin, Francois ; Torres, Guillermo ; Caldwell, Douglas A. ; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen ; Cochran, William D. ; Devore, Edna ; Gautier, Thomas N. ; Geary, John C. ; Gilliland, Ronald Lynn ; Gould, Alan ; Howell, Steve B. ; Jenkins, Jon M. ; Latham, David W. ; Lissauer, Jack J. ; Marcy, Geoffrey W. ; Sasselov, Dimitar ; Boss, Alan ; Charbonneau, David ; Ciardi, David ; Kaltenegger, Lisa ; Doyle, Laurance ; Dupree, Andrea K. ; Ford, Eric B. ; Fortney, Jonathan ; Holman, Matthew J. ; Steffen, Jason H. ; Mullally, Fergal ; Still, Martin ; Tarter, Jill ; Ballard, Sarah ; Buchhave, Lars A. ; Carter, Josh ; Christiansen, Jessie L. ; Demory, Brice Olivier ; Désert, Jean Michel ; Dressing, Courtney ; Endl, Michael ; Fabrycky, Daniel ; Fischer, Debra ; Haas, Michael R. ; Henze, Christopher ; Horch, Elliott ; Howard, Andrew W. ; Isaacson, Howard ; Kjeldsen, Hans ; Johnson, John Asher ; Klaus, Todd ; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery ; Barclay, Thomas ; Li, Jie ; Meibom, Søren ; Prsa, Andrej ; Quinn, Samuel N. ; Quintana, Elisa V. ; Robertson, Paul ; Sherry, William ; Shporer, Avi ; Tenenbaum, Peter ; Thompson, Susan E. ; Twicken, Joseph D. ; Van Cleve, Jeffrey ; Welsh, William F. ; Basu, Sarbani ; Chaplin, William ; Miglio, Andrea ; Kawaler, Steven D. ; Arentoft, Torben ; Stello, Dennis ; Metcalfe, Travis S. ; Verner, Graham A. ; Karoff, Christoffer ; Lundkvist, Mia ; Lund, Mikkel N. ; Handberg, Rasmus ; Elsworth, Yvonne ; Hekker, Saskia ; Huber, Daniel ; Bedding, Timothy R. ; Rapin, William. / Kepler-22b : A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 745, No. 2.
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abstract = "A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 0.060 M and 0.979 0.020 R. The depth of 492 10 ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 0.13 Re for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities (RVs) obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck I over a one-year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3σ upper limit of 124 M ⊕, safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262 K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the habitable zone of any star other than the Sun.",
author = "Borucki, {William J.} and Koch, {David G.} and Natalie Batalha and Bryson, {Stephen T.} and Jason Rowe and Francois Fressin and Guillermo Torres and Caldwell, {Douglas A.} and J{\o}rgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Cochran, {William D.} and Edna Devore and Gautier, {Thomas N.} and Geary, {John C.} and Gilliland, {Ronald Lynn} and Alan Gould and Howell, {Steve B.} and Jenkins, {Jon M.} and Latham, {David W.} and Lissauer, {Jack J.} and Marcy, {Geoffrey W.} and Dimitar Sasselov and Alan Boss and David Charbonneau and David Ciardi and Lisa Kaltenegger and Laurance Doyle and Dupree, {Andrea K.} and Ford, {Eric B.} and Jonathan Fortney and Holman, {Matthew J.} and Steffen, {Jason H.} and Fergal Mullally and Martin Still and Jill Tarter and Sarah Ballard and Buchhave, {Lars A.} and Josh Carter and Christiansen, {Jessie L.} and Demory, {Brice Olivier} and D{\'e}sert, {Jean Michel} and Courtney Dressing and Michael Endl and Daniel Fabrycky and Debra Fischer and Haas, {Michael R.} and Christopher Henze and Elliott Horch and Howard, {Andrew W.} and Howard Isaacson and Hans Kjeldsen and Johnson, {John Asher} and Todd Klaus and Jeffery Kolodziejczak and Thomas Barclay and Jie Li and S{\o}ren Meibom and Andrej Prsa and Quinn, {Samuel N.} and Quintana, {Elisa V.} and Paul Robertson and William Sherry and Avi Shporer and Peter Tenenbaum and Thompson, {Susan E.} and Twicken, {Joseph D.} and {Van Cleve}, Jeffrey and Welsh, {William F.} and Sarbani Basu and William Chaplin and Andrea Miglio and Kawaler, {Steven D.} and Torben Arentoft and Dennis Stello and Metcalfe, {Travis S.} and Verner, {Graham A.} and Christoffer Karoff and Mia Lundkvist and Lund, {Mikkel N.} and Rasmus Handberg and Yvonne Elsworth and Saskia Hekker and Daniel Huber and Bedding, {Timothy R.} and William Rapin",
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Borucki, WJ, Koch, DG, Batalha, N, Bryson, ST, Rowe, J, Fressin, F, Torres, G, Caldwell, DA, Christensen-Dalsgaard, J, Cochran, WD, Devore, E, Gautier, TN, Geary, JC, Gilliland, RL, Gould, A, Howell, SB, Jenkins, JM, Latham, DW, Lissauer, JJ, Marcy, GW, Sasselov, D, Boss, A, Charbonneau, D, Ciardi, D, Kaltenegger, L, Doyle, L, Dupree, AK, Ford, EB, Fortney, J, Holman, MJ, Steffen, JH, Mullally, F, Still, M, Tarter, J, Ballard, S, Buchhave, LA, Carter, J, Christiansen, JL, Demory, BO, Désert, JM, Dressing, C, Endl, M, Fabrycky, D, Fischer, D, Haas, MR, Henze, C, Horch, E, Howard, AW, Isaacson, H, Kjeldsen, H, Johnson, JA, Klaus, T, Kolodziejczak, J, Barclay, T, Li, J, Meibom, S, Prsa, A, Quinn, SN, Quintana, EV, Robertson, P, Sherry, W, Shporer, A, Tenenbaum, P, Thompson, SE, Twicken, JD, Van Cleve, J, Welsh, WF, Basu, S, Chaplin, W, Miglio, A, Kawaler, SD, Arentoft, T, Stello, D, Metcalfe, TS, Verner, GA, Karoff, C, Lundkvist, M, Lund, MN, Handberg, R, Elsworth, Y, Hekker, S, Huber, D, Bedding, TR & Rapin, W 2012, 'Kepler-22b: A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 745, no. 2, 120. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/120

Kepler-22b : A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star. / Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Rowe, Jason; Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D.; Devore, Edna; Gautier, Thomas N.; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald Lynn; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Doyle, Laurance; Dupree, Andrea K.; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew J.; Steffen, Jason H.; Mullally, Fergal; Still, Martin; Tarter, Jill; Ballard, Sarah; Buchhave, Lars A.; Carter, Josh; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Demory, Brice Olivier; Désert, Jean Michel; Dressing, Courtney; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fischer, Debra; Haas, Michael R.; Henze, Christopher; Horch, Elliott; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Kjeldsen, Hans; Johnson, John Asher; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Barclay, Thomas; Li, Jie; Meibom, Søren; Prsa, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Robertson, Paul; Sherry, William; Shporer, Avi; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Welsh, William F.; Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, William; Miglio, Andrea; Kawaler, Steven D.; Arentoft, Torben; Stello, Dennis; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Verner, Graham A.; Karoff, Christoffer; Lundkvist, Mia; Lund, Mikkel N.; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Rapin, William.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 745, No. 2, 120, 01.02.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Kepler-22b

T2 - A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star

AU - Borucki, William J.

AU - Koch, David G.

AU - Batalha, Natalie

AU - Bryson, Stephen T.

AU - Rowe, Jason

AU - Fressin, Francois

AU - Torres, Guillermo

AU - Caldwell, Douglas A.

AU - Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

AU - Cochran, William D.

AU - Devore, Edna

AU - Gautier, Thomas N.

AU - Geary, John C.

AU - Gilliland, Ronald Lynn

AU - Gould, Alan

AU - Howell, Steve B.

AU - Jenkins, Jon M.

AU - Latham, David W.

AU - Lissauer, Jack J.

AU - Marcy, Geoffrey W.

AU - Sasselov, Dimitar

AU - Boss, Alan

AU - Charbonneau, David

AU - Ciardi, David

AU - Kaltenegger, Lisa

AU - Doyle, Laurance

AU - Dupree, Andrea K.

AU - Ford, Eric B.

AU - Fortney, Jonathan

AU - Holman, Matthew J.

AU - Steffen, Jason H.

AU - Mullally, Fergal

AU - Still, Martin

AU - Tarter, Jill

AU - Ballard, Sarah

AU - Buchhave, Lars A.

AU - Carter, Josh

AU - Christiansen, Jessie L.

AU - Demory, Brice Olivier

AU - Désert, Jean Michel

AU - Dressing, Courtney

AU - Endl, Michael

AU - Fabrycky, Daniel

AU - Fischer, Debra

AU - Haas, Michael R.

AU - Henze, Christopher

AU - Horch, Elliott

AU - Howard, Andrew W.

AU - Isaacson, Howard

AU - Kjeldsen, Hans

AU - Johnson, John Asher

AU - Klaus, Todd

AU - Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

AU - Barclay, Thomas

AU - Li, Jie

AU - Meibom, Søren

AU - Prsa, Andrej

AU - Quinn, Samuel N.

AU - Quintana, Elisa V.

AU - Robertson, Paul

AU - Sherry, William

AU - Shporer, Avi

AU - Tenenbaum, Peter

AU - Thompson, Susan E.

AU - Twicken, Joseph D.

AU - Van Cleve, Jeffrey

AU - Welsh, William F.

AU - Basu, Sarbani

AU - Chaplin, William

AU - Miglio, Andrea

AU - Kawaler, Steven D.

AU - Arentoft, Torben

AU - Stello, Dennis

AU - Metcalfe, Travis S.

AU - Verner, Graham A.

AU - Karoff, Christoffer

AU - Lundkvist, Mia

AU - Lund, Mikkel N.

AU - Handberg, Rasmus

AU - Elsworth, Yvonne

AU - Hekker, Saskia

AU - Huber, Daniel

AU - Bedding, Timothy R.

AU - Rapin, William

PY - 2012/2/1

Y1 - 2012/2/1

N2 - A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 0.060 M and 0.979 0.020 R. The depth of 492 10 ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 0.13 Re for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities (RVs) obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck I over a one-year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3σ upper limit of 124 M ⊕, safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262 K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the habitable zone of any star other than the Sun.

AB - A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 0.060 M and 0.979 0.020 R. The depth of 492 10 ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 0.13 Re for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities (RVs) obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck I over a one-year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3σ upper limit of 124 M ⊕, safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262 K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the habitable zone of any star other than the Sun.

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Borucki WJ, Koch DG, Batalha N, Bryson ST, Rowe J, Fressin F et al. Kepler-22b: A 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star. Astrophysical Journal. 2012 Feb 1;745(2). 120. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/120