Kepler-9: A system of multiple planets transiting a sun-like star, confirmed by timing variations

Matthew J. Holman, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Darin Ragozzine, Eric B. Ford, Jason H. Steffen, William F. Welsh, Jack J. Lissauer, David W. Latham, Geoffrey W. Marcy, Lucianne M. Walkowicz, Natalie M. Batalha, Jon M. Jenkins, Jason F. Rowe, William D. Cochran, Francois Fressin, Guillermo Torres, Lars A. Buchhave, Dimitar D. Sasselov, William J. Borucki, David G. KochGibor Basri, Timothy M. Brown, Douglas A. Caldwell, David Charbonneau, Edward W. Dunham, Thomas N. Gautier, John C. Geary, Ronald L. Gilliland, Michael R. Haas, Steve B. Howell, David R. Ciardi, Michael Endl, Debra Fischer, Gábor Fürész, Joel D. Hartman, Howard Isaacson, John A. Johnson, Phillip J. MacQueen, Althea V. Moorhead, Robert C. Morehead, Jerome A. Orosz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

267 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Kepler spacecraft is monitoring more than 150,000 stars for evidence of planets transiting those stars. We report the detection of two Saturn-size planets that transit the same Sun-like star, based on 7 months of Kepler observations. Their 19.2- and 38.9-day periods are presently increasing and decreasing at respective average rates of 4 and 39 minutes per orbit; in addition, the transit times of the inner body display an alternating variation of smaller amplitude. These signatures are characteristic of gravitational interaction of two planets near a 2:1 orbital resonance. Six radial-velocity observations show that these two planets are the most massive objects orbiting close to the star and substantially improve the estimates of their masses. After removing the signal of the two confirmed giant planets, we identified an additional transiting super-Earth-size planet candidate with a period of 1.6 days.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-54
Number of pages4
JournalScience
Volume330
Issue number6000
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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    Holman, M. J., Fabrycky, D. C., Ragozzine, D., Ford, E. B., Steffen, J. H., Welsh, W. F., Lissauer, J. J., Latham, D. W., Marcy, G. W., Walkowicz, L. M., Batalha, N. M., Jenkins, J. M., Rowe, J. F., Cochran, W. D., Fressin, F., Torres, G., Buchhave, L. A., Sasselov, D. D., Borucki, W. J., ... Orosz, J. A. (2010). Kepler-9: A system of multiple planets transiting a sun-like star, confirmed by timing variations. Science, 330(6000), 51-54. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1195778