PvdA catalyzes the hydroxylation of the side chain primary amine of ornithine in the initial step of the biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa siderophore pyoverdin. The reaction requires FAD, NADPH, and O2. PvdA uses the same cosubstrates as several flavin-dependent hydroxylases that differ one from another in the kinetic mechanisms of their oxidative and reductive half-reactions. Therefore, the mechanism of PvdA was determined by absorption stopped-flow experiments. By contrast to some flavin-dependent hydroxylases (notably, p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase), binding of the hydroxylation target is not required to trigger reduction of the flavin by NADPH: the reductive half-reaction is equally facile in the presence and absence of ornithine. Reaction of O2 with FADH2 in the oxidative half-reaction is accelerated by ornithine 80-fold, providing a mechanism by which PvdA can ensure coupling of NADPH and ornithine oxidation. In the presence of ornithine, the expected C(4a)-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate with 390 nm absorption accumulates and decays to the C(4a)-hydroxyflavin in a kinetically competent fashion. The slower oxidative half-reaction that occurs in the absence of ornithine involves accumulation of an oxygenated flavin species and two subsequent states that are tentatively assigned as C(4a)-peroxy- and C(4a)-hydroperoxyflavin intermediates and the oxidized flavin. The enzyme generates stoichiometric hydrogen peroxide in lieu of hydroxyornithine. The data suggest that PvdA employs a kinetic mechanism that is a hybrid of those previously documented for other flavin-dependent hydroxylases.
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