To dissect the kinetics of structural transitions underlying the stepping cycle of kinesin-1 at physiological ATP, we used interferometric scattering microscopy to track the position of gold nanoparticles attached to individual motor domains in processively stepping dimers. Labeled heads resided stably at positions 16.4 nm apart, corresponding to a microtubule-bound state, and at a previously unseen intermediate position, corresponding to a tethered state. The chemical transitions underlying these structural transitions were identified by varying nucleotide conditions and carrying out parallel stopped-flow kinetics assays. At saturating ATP, kinesin-1 spends half of each stepping cycle with one head bound, specifying a structural state for each of two rate-limiting transitions. Analysis of stepping kinetics in varying nucleotides shows that ATP binding is required to properly enter the onehead-bound state, and hydrolysis is necessary to exit it at a physiological rate. These transitions differ from the standard model in which ATP binding drives full docking of the flexible neck linker domain of the motor. Thus, this work defines a consensus sequence of mechanochemical transitions that can be used to understand functional diversity across the kinesin superfamily.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Dec 29 2015|
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