Kirkendall Growth of Hollow Mn3O4 Nanoparticles upon Galvanic Reaction of MnO with Cu2+ and Evaluation as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Shelton J.P. Varapragasam, Choumini Balasanthiran, Ashim Gurung, Qiquan Qiao, Robert M. Rioux, James D. Hoefelmeyer

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27 Scopus citations


We report the formation of high surface area hollow Mn3O4 nanoparticles that form as a result of the galvanic reaction of Cu2+ with MnO nanocrystals concomitant with a nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The MnO nanocrystals were prepared according to the ultralarge scale synthesis reported by Hyeon, which allowed the preparation of hollow Mn3O4 in multigram quantities. Ex-situ analyses with transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction show the morphology and phase stability of the hollow particles correlate with DSC-TGA data and show collapse of the hollow particles at temperatures greater than 200 °C. Electrodes fabricated from hollow Mn3O4 exhibited excellent initial Li ion storage capability (initial discharge capacity = 1324 mAh/g) but poor cycling performance (97% loss of discharge capacity after 10th cycle), whereas Mn3O4-MWCNT electrodes exhibited good reversibility and discharge capacity of 760 mAh/g after 100 cycles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11089-11099
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number21
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Energy(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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