Laboratory investigation of the frictional behavior of granular volcanic material

Jon Samuelson, Chris J. Marone, Barry Voight, Derek Elsworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report on detailed laboratory experiments designed to illustrate the frictional behavior of granular volcanic debris. The materials include pyroclastic flow debris from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and from Stromboli Volcano, Italy, and lahar deposits from Mount St. Helens. Experiments were conducted in a servo-controlled, double-direct shear apparatus under conditions of displacement-control and with monitored temperature and humidity. The effects of loading velocity, normal stress, grain-size range, and saturation state were examined for normal stresses from 0.75 to 8 MPa. The Soufrière Hills debris was sampled in the field using a 2 mm sieve. Samples from Stromboli and MSH represent the original bulk material. The influence of grain-size and size distribution were examined in detail for the Soufrière Hills material for 1) two narrow size ranges (3-4 φ{symbol}, 0.063-0.125 mm; and 0-1 φ{symbol}, 0.5-1 mm), 2) a wide size range (3-0 φ{symbol}, 0.125-1 mm), and 3) the natural size distribution in the range 0-1 mm. These four data sets show remarkably uniform properties: coefficients of residual internal friction varied from 0.62 to 0.64 and coefficients of peak internal friction varied from 0.66 to 0.69, with zero cohesion in each case. For the natural grain-size distribution, we find a small but clear increase in residual sliding friction with increasing slip velocity in the range 10 to 900 μm/s, i.e. velocity strengthening frictional behavior. For Soufrière Hills pyroclastic material the coefficient of internal friction changes very little when water saturated. The frictional characteristics were remarkably similar for the three volcanoes. For the natural grain-size distributions, the coefficient of residual internal friction ranged from 0.61 to 0.63 and peak internal friction values ranged from 0.65 to 0.66. Pre-loaded and over-compacted materials sheared at reduced normal stress gave peak coefficients as high as 0.80. Our results imply that granular volcanic debris should often fail via stable creep, but may exhibit stick-slip instability under some conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-279
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Volume173
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 10 2008

Fingerprint

Internal friction
internal friction
volcanology
friction
debris
Debris
Volcanoes
grain size
volcanoes
coefficients
volcano
slip
range size
Displacement control
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones
sieves
sliding friction
Stick-slip
Sieves
cohesion

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

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title = "Laboratory investigation of the frictional behavior of granular volcanic material",
abstract = "We report on detailed laboratory experiments designed to illustrate the frictional behavior of granular volcanic debris. The materials include pyroclastic flow debris from Soufri{\`e}re Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and from Stromboli Volcano, Italy, and lahar deposits from Mount St. Helens. Experiments were conducted in a servo-controlled, double-direct shear apparatus under conditions of displacement-control and with monitored temperature and humidity. The effects of loading velocity, normal stress, grain-size range, and saturation state were examined for normal stresses from 0.75 to 8 MPa. The Soufri{\`e}re Hills debris was sampled in the field using a 2 mm sieve. Samples from Stromboli and MSH represent the original bulk material. The influence of grain-size and size distribution were examined in detail for the Soufri{\`e}re Hills material for 1) two narrow size ranges (3-4 φ{symbol}, 0.063-0.125 mm; and 0-1 φ{symbol}, 0.5-1 mm), 2) a wide size range (3-0 φ{symbol}, 0.125-1 mm), and 3) the natural size distribution in the range 0-1 mm. These four data sets show remarkably uniform properties: coefficients of residual internal friction varied from 0.62 to 0.64 and coefficients of peak internal friction varied from 0.66 to 0.69, with zero cohesion in each case. For the natural grain-size distribution, we find a small but clear increase in residual sliding friction with increasing slip velocity in the range 10 to 900 μm/s, i.e. velocity strengthening frictional behavior. For Soufri{\`e}re Hills pyroclastic material the coefficient of internal friction changes very little when water saturated. The frictional characteristics were remarkably similar for the three volcanoes. For the natural grain-size distributions, the coefficient of residual internal friction ranged from 0.61 to 0.63 and peak internal friction values ranged from 0.65 to 0.66. Pre-loaded and over-compacted materials sheared at reduced normal stress gave peak coefficients as high as 0.80. Our results imply that granular volcanic debris should often fail via stable creep, but may exhibit stick-slip instability under some conditions.",
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Laboratory investigation of the frictional behavior of granular volcanic material. / Samuelson, Jon; Marone, Chris J.; Voight, Barry; Elsworth, Derek.

In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 173, No. 3-4, 10.06.2008, p. 265-279.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

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N2 - We report on detailed laboratory experiments designed to illustrate the frictional behavior of granular volcanic debris. The materials include pyroclastic flow debris from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and from Stromboli Volcano, Italy, and lahar deposits from Mount St. Helens. Experiments were conducted in a servo-controlled, double-direct shear apparatus under conditions of displacement-control and with monitored temperature and humidity. The effects of loading velocity, normal stress, grain-size range, and saturation state were examined for normal stresses from 0.75 to 8 MPa. The Soufrière Hills debris was sampled in the field using a 2 mm sieve. Samples from Stromboli and MSH represent the original bulk material. The influence of grain-size and size distribution were examined in detail for the Soufrière Hills material for 1) two narrow size ranges (3-4 φ{symbol}, 0.063-0.125 mm; and 0-1 φ{symbol}, 0.5-1 mm), 2) a wide size range (3-0 φ{symbol}, 0.125-1 mm), and 3) the natural size distribution in the range 0-1 mm. These four data sets show remarkably uniform properties: coefficients of residual internal friction varied from 0.62 to 0.64 and coefficients of peak internal friction varied from 0.66 to 0.69, with zero cohesion in each case. For the natural grain-size distribution, we find a small but clear increase in residual sliding friction with increasing slip velocity in the range 10 to 900 μm/s, i.e. velocity strengthening frictional behavior. For Soufrière Hills pyroclastic material the coefficient of internal friction changes very little when water saturated. The frictional characteristics were remarkably similar for the three volcanoes. For the natural grain-size distributions, the coefficient of residual internal friction ranged from 0.61 to 0.63 and peak internal friction values ranged from 0.65 to 0.66. Pre-loaded and over-compacted materials sheared at reduced normal stress gave peak coefficients as high as 0.80. Our results imply that granular volcanic debris should often fail via stable creep, but may exhibit stick-slip instability under some conditions.

AB - We report on detailed laboratory experiments designed to illustrate the frictional behavior of granular volcanic debris. The materials include pyroclastic flow debris from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and from Stromboli Volcano, Italy, and lahar deposits from Mount St. Helens. Experiments were conducted in a servo-controlled, double-direct shear apparatus under conditions of displacement-control and with monitored temperature and humidity. The effects of loading velocity, normal stress, grain-size range, and saturation state were examined for normal stresses from 0.75 to 8 MPa. The Soufrière Hills debris was sampled in the field using a 2 mm sieve. Samples from Stromboli and MSH represent the original bulk material. The influence of grain-size and size distribution were examined in detail for the Soufrière Hills material for 1) two narrow size ranges (3-4 φ{symbol}, 0.063-0.125 mm; and 0-1 φ{symbol}, 0.5-1 mm), 2) a wide size range (3-0 φ{symbol}, 0.125-1 mm), and 3) the natural size distribution in the range 0-1 mm. These four data sets show remarkably uniform properties: coefficients of residual internal friction varied from 0.62 to 0.64 and coefficients of peak internal friction varied from 0.66 to 0.69, with zero cohesion in each case. For the natural grain-size distribution, we find a small but clear increase in residual sliding friction with increasing slip velocity in the range 10 to 900 μm/s, i.e. velocity strengthening frictional behavior. For Soufrière Hills pyroclastic material the coefficient of internal friction changes very little when water saturated. The frictional characteristics were remarkably similar for the three volcanoes. For the natural grain-size distributions, the coefficient of residual internal friction ranged from 0.61 to 0.63 and peak internal friction values ranged from 0.65 to 0.66. Pre-loaded and over-compacted materials sheared at reduced normal stress gave peak coefficients as high as 0.80. Our results imply that granular volcanic debris should often fail via stable creep, but may exhibit stick-slip instability under some conditions.

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