Open adrenalectomy has been the gold-standard therapy for adrenal neoplasms. Minimally invasive treatments, however, have assumed a more central role in the management of these lesions. The traditional benefits of laparoscopy, including reduced blood loss, shorter hospital duration, and improved convalescence, extend to adrenal disease without compromising the oncologic efficacy of the surgery. Contemporary series suggest that minimally invasive surgery is also a reasonable therapeutic modality for larger adrenal masses. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for these large masses is a technically demanding procedure that should be undertaken by experienced laparoscopic surgeons familiar with retroperitoneal anatomy and adept with vascular techniques in the event of an open conversion. Oncologic outcomes collectively suggest that in the setting of adequate surgical resection, recurrence patterns relate more to disease-process biology than surgical approach. Neither size criteria, suspicion of malignancy, nor locally invasive disease should be considered an absolute contraindication to laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
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