PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While most renal and ureteral stones can be efficiently managed using endourologic techniques, the use of laparoscopy for the management of urolithiasis is increasing. The application of laparoscopy for stone removal will further reduce the need for open stone surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, and anatrophic nephrolithotomy are highly successful techniques with regard to their one-session, high stone-free rates. These procedures could be considered as the preferred approaches when endourologic procedures are not available or have failed. Laparoscopic stone surgery (LSS) in patients with urinary tract anomalies offers a reliable minimally invasive procedure as an alternative to a complex endourologic technique. SUMMARY: Although laparoscopy still has a limited role in the urologistEˆs armamentarium for the surgical management of urolithiasis, it can further reduce the need for open stone surgery in complex circumstances. LSS duplicates its open counterpart and offers a high one-session, stone-free rate in most patients with a lower morbidity and quicker convalescence. More comparative studies are needed to define the role and indications of LSS in relation to endourologic and open techniques, especially in complex circumstances.
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