Nanoporous two-dimensional materials are attractive for ionic and molecular nanofiltration but limited by insufficient mechanical strength over large areas. We report a large-area graphene-nanomesh/single-walled carbon nanotube (GNM/SWNT) hybrid membrane with excellent mechanical strength while fully capturing the merit of atomically thin membranes. The monolayer GNM features high-density, subnanometer pores for efficient transport of water molecules while blocking solute ions or molecules to enable size-selective separation. The SWNT network physically separates the GNM into microsized islands and acts as the microscopic framework to support the GNM, thus ensuring the structural integrity of the atomically thin GNM. The resulting GNM/SWNT membranes show high water permeance and a high rejection ratio for salt ions or organic molecules, and they retain stable separation performance in tubular modules.
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