Large bipolaron density at organic semiconductor/electrode interfaces

Rijul Dhanker, Christopher L. Gray, Sukrit Mukhopadhyay, Sean Nunez, Chiao Yu Cheng, Anatoliy N. Sokolov, Noel C. Giebink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Bipolaron states, in which two electrons or two holes occupy a single molecule or conjugated polymer segment, are typically considered to be negligible in organic semiconductor devices due to Coulomb repulsion between the two charges. Here we use charge modulation spectroscopy to reveal a bipolaron sheet density >1010 cm-2 at the interface between an indium tin oxide anode and the common small molecule organic semiconductor N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine. We find that the magnetocurrent response of hole-only devices correlates closely with changes in the bipolaron concentration, supporting the bipolaron model of unipolar organic magnetoresistance and suggesting that it may be more of an interface than a bulk phenomenon. These results are understood on the basis of a quantitative interface energy level alignment model, which indicates that bipolarons are generally expected to be significant near contacts in the Fermi level pinning regime and thus may be more prevalent in organic electronic devices than previously thought.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2252
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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