There has been a long running debate among public choice theorists on the effects of heterogeneity on collective action. Our longitudinal study leads us to conclude that collective action outcomes are shaped not simply by the attributes of heterogeneity themselves but by the processes by which those attributes interact over-time with the bio-physical and institutional environment. From a methodological point of view how one integrates conceptualization of forms of heterogeneity with recognition of their axis of influence; themselves dependent upon attributes of field-level situations is crucial for analysis of collective action. These findings have public policy implications for targeting of poor and non-poor resource users and management of environmental feedback loops.
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