This report details the clinicopathologic features and follow-up data on 40 cases of inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma, a rare sarcoma with a poor prognosis. Study cohort consisted of 31 females and 9 males (mean age, 53 y), whose material was accessioned to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between 1976 and 2008. Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcomas ranged in size from 3.5 to 15.0 (median, 8.5) cms, and most involved the middle segment of the vessel and grew extraluminally. Eleven leiomyosarcomas were French Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) histologic grade I; 21, grade II; and 5 were grade III. Eleven of 33 patients managed by complete or radical resection had involved surgical margins. Twenty of the 34 patients (59%) with clinical follow-up data (mean, 33.5; median, 51 mo) died of sarcoma-related complications and 9 (26%) of unknown causes. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates after resection without documented residual macroscopic disease were 50% and 22%, respectively. Two patients are alive without disease 9 and 18 years after last surgical intervention. Suprahepatic vena caval and right atrial involvement by tumor, predominant intraluminal tumor growth, and residual postsurgical macroscopic disease were factors that statistically correlate with death within 2 years. By univariate analysis, intraluminal tumor (P=0.03), liver injury or failure (compromised liver) (P=0.01), and moderate to poor tumor differentiation (P=0.03) were associated with increased tumor-related mortality, whereas a compromised liver (P=0.01) was the only factor correlated with mortality by multivariate analysis. Our study concludes that a macroscopic resection of localized inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma provides the best chance for long-term survival, suprahepatic tumors often result in early death, and a compromised liver correlates with overall poor survival, but French Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer grading does not affect prognosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine