Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Increase in Intestinal Epithelial Tight Permeability Is Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 4/Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response 88 (MyD88) Activation of Myosin Light Chain Kinase Expression

Meghali Nighot, Rana Al-Sadi, Shuhong Guo, Manmeet Rawat, Prashant Nighot, Martin D. Watterson, Thomas Y. Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are a major component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and play an important role in mediating intestinal inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel disease. Although recent studies suggested that physiologically relevant concentrations of LPS (0 to 1 ng/mL) cause an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability, the mechanisms that mediate an LPS-induced increase in intestinal TJ permeability remain unclear. Herein, we show that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays a central role in the LPS-induced increase in TJ permeability. Filter-grown Caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers and C57BL/6 mice were used as an in vitro and in vivo intestinal epithelial model system, respectively. LPS caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in MLCK expression and kinase activity in Caco-2 monolayers. The pharmacologic MLCK inhibition and siRNA-induced knock-down of MLCK inhibited the LPS-induced increase in Caco-2 TJ permeability. The LPS increase in TJ permeability was mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)/MyD88 signal-transduction pathway up-regulation of MLCK expression. The LPS-induced increase in mouse intestinal permeability also required an increase in MLCK expression. The LPS-induced increase in intestinal permeability was inhibited in MLCK−/− and TLR-4−/− mice. These data show, for the first time, that the LPS-induced increase in intestinal permeability was mediated by TLR-4/MyD88 signal-transduction pathway up-regulation of MLCK. Therapeutic targeting of these pathways can prevent an LPS-induced increase in intestinal permeability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2698-2710
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Volume187
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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