Lithium ion solvation and diffusion in bulk organic electrolytes from first-principles and classical reactive molecular dynamics

Mitchell T. Ong, Osvalds Verners, Erik W. Draeger, Adri C.T. Van Duin, Vincenzo Lordi, John E. Pask

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lithium-ion battery performance is strongly influenced by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, which depends on the speed at which Li ions migrate across the cell and relates to their solvation structure. The choice of solvent can greatly impact both the solvation and diffusivity of Li ions. In this work, we used first-principles molecular dynamics to examine the solvation and diffusion of Li ions in the bulk organic solvents ethylene carbonate (EC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and a mixture of EC and EMC. We found that Li ions are solvated by either carbonyl or ether oxygen atoms of the solvents and sometimes by the PF6- anion. Li+ prefers a tetrahedrally coordinated first solvation shell regardless of which species are involved, with the specific preferred solvation structure dependent on the organic solvent. In addition, we calculated Li diffusion coefficients in each electrolyte, finding slightly larger diffusivities in the linear carbonate EMC compared to the cyclic carbonate EC. The magnitude of the diffusion coefficient correlates with the strength of Li+ solvation. Corresponding analysis for the PF6- anion shows greater diffusivity associated with a weakly bound, poorly defined first solvation shell. These results can be used to aid in the design of new electrolytes to improve Li-ion battery performance. (Figure Presented).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1535-1545
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume119
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 29 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

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