Background: The objective of this study was to determine whether gaze patterns could differentiate expertise during simulated ultrasound-guided Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheterization (US-IJCVC) and if expert gazes were different between simulators of varying functional and structural fidelity. Methods: A 2017 study compared eye gaze patterns of expert surgeons (n = 11), senior residents (n = 4), and novices (n = 7) during CVC needle insertions using the dynamic haptic robotic trainer (DHRT), a system which simulates US-IJCVC. Expert gaze patterns were also compared between a manikin and the DHRT. Results: Expert gaze patterns were consistent between the manikin and DHRT environments (p = 0.401). On the DHRT system, CVC experience significantly impacted the percent of time participants spent gazing at the ultrasound screen (p < 0.0005) and the needle and ultrasound probe (p < 0.0005). Conclusion: Gaze patterns differentiate expertise during ultrasound-guided IJCVC placement and the fidelity of the simulator does not impact gaze patterns.
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