Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus

Xi Ling, Liangbo Liang, Shengxi Huang, Alexander A. Puretzky, David B. Geohegan, Bobby G. Sumpter, Jing Kong, Vincent Meunier, Mildred S. Dresselhaus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

159 Scopus citations


As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand the low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm-1) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using a laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis, the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and, thus, their frequencies show a stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both the crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that in the temperature range -150 to 30°C, the breathing modes have a weak anharmonic behavior, in contrast to the HF Raman modes that exhibit strong anharmonicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4080-4088
Number of pages9
JournalNano letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 10 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this