Two populations of the wild house mouse, Mus domesticus, found living close to each other (one inhabited a chicken coop and the other an open field at the Educational Farm of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, East Talpiot, Jerusalem) were studied for their H-2 polymorphism. These two populations were selected because they are well characterized in terms of their ecological parameters; they have been under continuous surveillance for several years. Twenty-seven H-2 homozygous lines were produced by mating wild mice from these two populations with laboratory strains. The H-2w homozygotes were then characterized by serological typing with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific for the known allomorphs controlled by the class I H-2K and H-2D loci or the class II H-2A and H-2E loci. They were also used as donors for immunizations and for the selection of antisera defining the H-2 haplotypes carried by these lines. Four new H-2 haplotypes could be identified: H-2w82 (Kwl6 Dws2) H-2w83 (Kw83 Dw16) H-2w84 (Kw84 Dw84) and H-2w85 (Kw83Dw84) the last haplotype being a recombinant derived from H-2w83 and H-2w84. Antinsera defining the new haplotypes were then used for a study of the wild populations. This study revealed that the populations contain only the four identified H-2 haplotypes, having three alleles at the H-2K locus (Kw16 Kw83, Kw84) and three alleles at the H-2D locus (Dw16, Dw82 and Dw84). The alleles occur in the populations with a frequency of 0.12-0.54. There were no significant differences in gene frequencies between the two populations, and the allele frequencies remained more or less stable. There was a significant excess of heterozygotes for at least some of the genes, compared with the frequency expected from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The same antisera were also used to type other populations in the vicinity of Jerusalem. In one population, located 30 km west of Jerusalem, the mice failed to react with any of the reagents. In the other two populations, located 15 km west and 40 km northeast of Jerusalem, three of the four H-2 haplotypes found in East Talpiot were present at high frequencies. It appears, therefore, that only three main H-2 haplotypes and two or three minor ones are present in the area around Jerusalem. This study thus provides the first example of a large mainland population in which the H-2 polymorphism is comparable to that of many other non-H-2 loci.
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