Stable operation of rechargeable lithium-based batteries at low temperatures is important for cold-climate applications, but is plagued by dendritic Li plating and unstable solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI). Here, we report on high-performance Li metal batteries under low-temperature and high-rate-charging conditions. The high performance is achieved by using a self-assembled monolayer of electrochemically active molecules on current collectors that regulates the nanostructure and composition of the SEI and deposition morphology of Li metal anodes. A multilayer SEI that contains a lithium fluoride-rich inner phase and amorphous outer layer effectively seals the Li surface, in contrast to the conventional SEI, which is non-passive at low temperatures. Consequently, galvanic Li corrosion and self-discharge are suppressed, stable Li deposition is achieved from −60 °C to 45 °C, and a Li | LiCoO2 cell with a capacity of 2.0 mAh cm−2 displays a 200-cycle life at −15 °C with a recharge time of 45 min.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology