The present study examined the effects of reducing dietary total fat and saturated fat (SFA) on LDL oxidative susceptibility in 27 healthy men and women (age 24-65 y). Each subject consumed each of three diets for 8 wk: an average American diet (AAD, 34% energy from fat, 15% from SFA), a Step-1 diet (29% fat, 9% SFA) and a very low SFA diet (Low-Sat, 25% fat, 6% SFA). In vitro LDL oxidation was assessed by copper-mediated oxidation, as measured by the kinetics of conjugated diene formation and lipid peroxide formation. Compared with the AAD, plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol levels were 8% lower (P = 0.16 and P = 0.11, respectively), in subjects when they consumed the Step-1 diet and 11% (P < 0.03) and 14% (P < 0.057) lower, respectively, when they consumed the Low-Sat diet. Conjugated diene production and oxidation rate were 7% (P < 0.05) and 9% (P < 0.05) lower, respectively. The reduction of lipid peroxide formation was 9% (P < 0.05) in subjects when they consumed the Low-Sat diet vs. the AAD. In addition, lipid peroxide and conjugated diene formation were positively correlated with plasma total and LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (apo B)levels (r = 0.5-0.6, P < 0.001), suggesting that quantity of LDL is an important determinant of oxidative modification. Furthermore, at the same level of apo B or LDL-C, LDL from subjects when they consumed either Step-1 or Low-Sat diets was less susceptible (P < 0.05) to oxidation than those when they consumed the AAD, suggesting that qualitative changes also affect LDL oxidative susceptibility. Therefore, the benefits of lowering dietary SFA may extend beyond decreasing LDL-C levels and include favorable qualitative changes in LDL that further decrease risk of coronary heart disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics