As access to MRI in pediatrics increases, the radiologist needs to become acquainted with the basic principles of MRI safety. As part of the image acquisition, the static magnetic field, gradient system, and the radiofrequency transmit–receive coil interact with medical and non-medical implants and can result in serious injury. The main stage of risk triage is based on the determination of whether the implant is MRI-safe, conditional, unsafe or unknown. Guiding principles include the strict adherence to manufacturer specifications for MRI-conditional implants and the assumption that an unknown implant is MR-unsafe. In this article we review considerations for common medical implants encountered in pediatrics including ventriculoperitoneal shunts, orthopedic hardware, orthodontic hardware, pacemakers, vascular stents, vagal nerve stimulators and cochlear implants. Finally, we review a set of high-yield considerations, including the non-communicative patient (sedated or non-verbal), susceptibility artifacts from unclear source, and the approach to an unknown implant.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging