Traumatic brain injury remains a serious public health problem, causing death and disability for millions. In order to maximize outcomes in the face of a complex injury to a complex organ, a variety of advanced neuromonitoring techniques may be used to guide surgical and medical decision-making. Because of the heterogeneity of injury types and the plethora of treatment confounders present in this patient population, the scientific study of specific interventions is challenging. This challenge highlights the need for a firm understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of brain injuries when making clinical decisions in the intensive care unit.
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