More than 70% of adults treated for primary hypertension will eventually require at least two antihypertensive agents, either initially as combination therapy or as add-on therapy if monotherapy and lifestyle modifications do not achieve adequate blood pressure control. Four main classes of medications are used in combination therapy for the treatment of hypertension: thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ACEIs and ARBs should not be used simultaneously. In black patients, at least one agent should be a thiazide diuretic or a calcium channel blocker. Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction should be treated initially with a beta blocker and an ACEI or ARB (or an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor), followed by add-on therapy with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist and a diuretic based on volume status. Treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease and proteinuria should include an ACEI or ARB plus a thiazide diuretic or a calcium channel blocker. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be treated similarly to those without diabetes unless proteinuria is present, in which case combination therapy should include an ACEI or ARB.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||American family physician|
|State||Published - Jan 15 2020|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Family Practice