Analysis of two 3D surveys, available well data, published outcrop data and subsurface information, as well as production data available from the state of Pennsylvania, demonstrates that wide-azimuth seismic is sensitive to variations in fracturing at the scale of individual pads or even individual wells. These variations in fracturing begin to explain why production varies significantly, even locally, within the Marcellus Shale gas play. Rose diagrams from quantitative fracture analysis using azimuthal seismic velocity volumes were compared with published data from Appalachian black shale outcrops and subsurface fracture models proposed in various papers to validate the results from subsurface data. These analyses provided insight into the rock fabric and the presence of systematic joints that likely affect production. There was a strong correlation between the low anisotropy and low heterogeneity of anisotropy and high estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). Additionally, interpreted fracture trend azimuths differed between areas of larger gas EUR and areas of smaller gas EUR as defined by decline curve analysis. Some perforations were likely to perform much better than others along the borehole, based on observed heterogeneity in the seismic profiles and map view.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes