Objectives: Prenatal exposure to air pollutant has been associated with congenital heart defect (CHD). However, no study has investigated this effect in pre-pregnancy overweighted women. This study aimed to evaluate gestational exposure to particulate pollutant (PM2.5) and gaseous air pollutants (O3 and NO2) on the risk of CHD, and explore the potential effect modifiers including maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI and pregestational diseases. Methods: In this birth cohort study, a total of 63,213 pregnant women in Foshan, China were initially recruited and followed from their first hospital visit for pregnancy to delivery during 2015–2019. CHD cases were confirmed by the records in hospital- and population- based birth defect surveillance systems. Air pollutant exposures were estimated by the daily concentrations measured in air monitoring stations in each participant's residential county. Mixed-effects regression models, adjusted for potential confounding factors were applied to estimate the associations between air pollutant and CHD during the first three months of the pregnancy. Results: A total of 985 (1.6%) newborns were identified as CHD cases. For each 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient O3 during the 1st month, the OR values for CHD were 1.03 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.13) in pre-pregnancy normal weighted women and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.53) in pre-pregnancy overweighted women. For each 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 during the 3rd month, the OR values for CHD were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) in pre-pregnancy normal weighted women and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.51) in pre-pregnancy overweighted women. No significant associations were found between PM2.5 exposure and CHD in our analysis. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that gaseous air pollutants (O3 and NO2) exposure during the cardiac embryogenesis period is associated with an increased risk of CHD, particularly for pre-pregnancy overweighted women.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal