Water and energy systems are interdependent. However, at national and international levels, energy and water systems have been designed individually. To optimize the use of energy resources and have a more sustainable energy processes, a new formulation is proposed in this paper to optimize the energy consumption of water-energy systems at a community scale. More specifically, single-objective, bi-level, and co-optimization models are developed to minimize the energy consumption of a micro water distribution network concerning three scenarios: (1) standalone operation; (2) integrated with a grid-connected micro energy system with no storage unit; and (3) integrated with an off-grid micro energy system with storage units. In all conditions, a mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is used to solve the optimization problems. Pump operations with varying statuses, flow rates, and speeds are contemplated to formulate the energy consumption of the micro water, considering a quadratic function for the pump's energy head changing with flow rate. The micro water network is designed based on a diurnal pattern of water demand for a network including 1 reservoir, 1 water tank, 6 nodes, and 2 pumps. The micro energy system includes a microgrid with a combined heat and power plant (CHP), diesel (DS) generator, natural gas (NG) generator, renewable sources (solar and wind), and energy storage units. Several case studies are carried out to compare the performance of developed optimization models.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Building and Construction
- Mechanical Engineering
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law