There is an ongoing trend to increasingly offload inference tasks, such as CNNs, to edge devices in many IoT scenarios. As energy harvesting is an attractive IoT power source, recent ReRAM-based CNN accelerators have been designed for operation on harvested energy. When addressing the instability problems of harvested energy, prior optimization techniques often assume that the load is fixed, overlooking the close interactions among input power, computational load, and circuit efficiency, or adapt the dynamic load to match the just-in-time incoming power under a simple harvesting architecture with no intermediate energy storage.Targeting a more efficient harvesting architecture equipped with both energy storage and energy delivery modules, this paper is the first effort to target whole system, end-to-end efficiency for an energy harvesting ReRAM-based accelerator. First, we model the relationships among ReRAM load power, DC-DC converter efficiency, and power failure overhead. Then, a maximum computation progress tracking scheme (MaxTracker) is proposed to achieve a joint optimization of the whole system by tuning the load power of the ReRAM-based accelerator. Specifically, MaxTracker accommodates both continuous and intermittent computing schemes and provides dynamic ReRAM load according to harvesting scenarios.We evaluate MaxTracker over four input power scenarios, and the experimental results show average speedups of 38.4%/40.3% (up to 51.3%/84.4%), over a full activation scheme (with energy storage) and order-of-magnitude speedups over the recently proposed (energy storage-less) ResiRCA technique. Furthermore, we also explore MaxTracker in combination with the Capybara reconfigurable capacitor approach to offer more flexible tuners and thus further boost the system performance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Hardware and Architecture