Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association

Marie Pierre St-Onge, Jamy Ard, Monica L. Baskin, Stephanie E. Chiuve, Heather M. Johnson, Penny Kris-Etherton, Krista Varady

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

191 Scopus citations

Abstract

Eating patterns are increasingly varied. Typical breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals are difficult to distinguish because skipping meals and snacking have become more prevalent. Such eating styles can have various effects on cardiometabolic health markers, namely obesity, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. In this statement, we review the cardiometabolic health effects of specific eating patterns: skipping breakfast, intermittent fasting, meal frequency (number of daily eating occasions), and timing of eating occasions. Furthermore, we propose definitions for meals, snacks, and eating occasions for use in research. Finally, data suggest that irregular eating patterns appear less favorable for achieving a healthy cardiometabolic profile. Intentional eating with mindful attention to the timing and frequency of eating occasions could lead to healthier lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk factor management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e96-e121
JournalCirculation
Volume135
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 28 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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