Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities

Apoorva Karamchandani, Hojae Yi, Virendra Puri

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are promising bioenergy crops, which are found in abundance in the Northeast region of the U.S. In this study, mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are measured and compared in addition to the quality of pellets formed. Size reduction was performed with two different screen sizes (3.175 mm and 6.35 mm) and conditioned to obtain biomass at two different moisture contents (17.5% and 20% on wet basis). Physical properties included bulk density, particle density, and particle size distribution. Ground switchgrass has the smallest D50, whereas, willow has the highest D50, when size reduced with the same screen size. Hydrostatic triaxial compression (HTC) tests were performed using the Cubical Triaxial Tester (CTT) to determine the various mechanical properties. Bulk modulus for the three materials at four conditions at specific unloading pressures (20, 45, 70, and 95 kPa) was determined. Durability, pellet density, axial compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength were the indicators of pellet quality. Willow, size-reduced with 3.175 mm screen size at 17.5% w.b., has the highest bulk modulus among different conditions of all three biomass. The diametral tensile strength is 4-5.8 MPa for corn stover, 0.9-3.8 MPa for switchgrass and 0.8-5.7 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Axial compressive strength is 8-11.5 MPa for corn stover, 0.8-5.7 MPa for switchgrass and 1.5-8.5 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Corn stover pellets formed with 3.175 mm screen size at 20% w.b. has the highest diametral tensile and axial compressive strengths among different conditions for all three biomass. Pellet durability for all three materials is more than 80%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014
PublisherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Pages727-731
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781632668455
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
EventAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014 - Montreal, Canada
Duration: Jul 13 2014Jul 16 2014

Publication series

NameAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014
Volume1

Other

OtherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014
CountryCanada
CityMontreal
Period7/13/147/16/14

Fingerprint

Salix
Panicum
Panicum virgatum
corn stover
Compressive strength
Zea mays
mechanical properties
pellets
Biomass
Compressive Strength
Mechanical properties
Durability
Tensile strength
Elastic moduli
strength (mechanics)
Tensile Strength
Unloading
Particle size analysis
Particles (particulate matter)
Crops

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Karamchandani, A., Yi, H., & Puri, V. (2014). Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014 (pp. 727-731). (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014; Vol. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
Karamchandani, Apoorva ; Yi, Hojae ; Puri, Virendra. / Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2014. pp. 727-731 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014).
@inproceedings{79fe3d5f8c284097b71eed8d569a6e3a,
title = "Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities",
abstract = "Corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are promising bioenergy crops, which are found in abundance in the Northeast region of the U.S. In this study, mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are measured and compared in addition to the quality of pellets formed. Size reduction was performed with two different screen sizes (3.175 mm and 6.35 mm) and conditioned to obtain biomass at two different moisture contents (17.5{\%} and 20{\%} on wet basis). Physical properties included bulk density, particle density, and particle size distribution. Ground switchgrass has the smallest D50, whereas, willow has the highest D50, when size reduced with the same screen size. Hydrostatic triaxial compression (HTC) tests were performed using the Cubical Triaxial Tester (CTT) to determine the various mechanical properties. Bulk modulus for the three materials at four conditions at specific unloading pressures (20, 45, 70, and 95 kPa) was determined. Durability, pellet density, axial compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength were the indicators of pellet quality. Willow, size-reduced with 3.175 mm screen size at 17.5{\%} w.b., has the highest bulk modulus among different conditions of all three biomass. The diametral tensile strength is 4-5.8 MPa for corn stover, 0.9-3.8 MPa for switchgrass and 0.8-5.7 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Axial compressive strength is 8-11.5 MPa for corn stover, 0.8-5.7 MPa for switchgrass and 1.5-8.5 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Corn stover pellets formed with 3.175 mm screen size at 20{\%} w.b. has the highest diametral tensile and axial compressive strengths among different conditions for all three biomass. Pellet durability for all three materials is more than 80{\%}.",
author = "Apoorva Karamchandani and Hojae Yi and Virendra Puri",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
series = "American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014",
publisher = "American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers",
pages = "727--731",
booktitle = "American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014",
address = "United States",

}

Karamchandani, A, Yi, H & Puri, V 2014, Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities. in American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014, vol. 1, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, pp. 727-731, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014, Montreal, Canada, 7/13/14.

Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities. / Karamchandani, Apoorva; Yi, Hojae; Puri, Virendra.

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2014. p. 727-731 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014; Vol. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities

AU - Karamchandani, Apoorva

AU - Yi, Hojae

AU - Puri, Virendra

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are promising bioenergy crops, which are found in abundance in the Northeast region of the U.S. In this study, mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are measured and compared in addition to the quality of pellets formed. Size reduction was performed with two different screen sizes (3.175 mm and 6.35 mm) and conditioned to obtain biomass at two different moisture contents (17.5% and 20% on wet basis). Physical properties included bulk density, particle density, and particle size distribution. Ground switchgrass has the smallest D50, whereas, willow has the highest D50, when size reduced with the same screen size. Hydrostatic triaxial compression (HTC) tests were performed using the Cubical Triaxial Tester (CTT) to determine the various mechanical properties. Bulk modulus for the three materials at four conditions at specific unloading pressures (20, 45, 70, and 95 kPa) was determined. Durability, pellet density, axial compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength were the indicators of pellet quality. Willow, size-reduced with 3.175 mm screen size at 17.5% w.b., has the highest bulk modulus among different conditions of all three biomass. The diametral tensile strength is 4-5.8 MPa for corn stover, 0.9-3.8 MPa for switchgrass and 0.8-5.7 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Axial compressive strength is 8-11.5 MPa for corn stover, 0.8-5.7 MPa for switchgrass and 1.5-8.5 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Corn stover pellets formed with 3.175 mm screen size at 20% w.b. has the highest diametral tensile and axial compressive strengths among different conditions for all three biomass. Pellet durability for all three materials is more than 80%.

AB - Corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are promising bioenergy crops, which are found in abundance in the Northeast region of the U.S. In this study, mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow are measured and compared in addition to the quality of pellets formed. Size reduction was performed with two different screen sizes (3.175 mm and 6.35 mm) and conditioned to obtain biomass at two different moisture contents (17.5% and 20% on wet basis). Physical properties included bulk density, particle density, and particle size distribution. Ground switchgrass has the smallest D50, whereas, willow has the highest D50, when size reduced with the same screen size. Hydrostatic triaxial compression (HTC) tests were performed using the Cubical Triaxial Tester (CTT) to determine the various mechanical properties. Bulk modulus for the three materials at four conditions at specific unloading pressures (20, 45, 70, and 95 kPa) was determined. Durability, pellet density, axial compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength were the indicators of pellet quality. Willow, size-reduced with 3.175 mm screen size at 17.5% w.b., has the highest bulk modulus among different conditions of all three biomass. The diametral tensile strength is 4-5.8 MPa for corn stover, 0.9-3.8 MPa for switchgrass and 0.8-5.7 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Axial compressive strength is 8-11.5 MPa for corn stover, 0.8-5.7 MPa for switchgrass and 1.5-8.5 MPa for willow pellets, respectively. Corn stover pellets formed with 3.175 mm screen size at 20% w.b. has the highest diametral tensile and axial compressive strengths among different conditions for all three biomass. Pellet durability for all three materials is more than 80%.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84911936989&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84911936989&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Conference contribution

T3 - American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014

SP - 727

EP - 731

BT - American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014

PB - American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers

ER -

Karamchandani A, Yi H, Puri V. Measurement and comparison of mechanical properties of ground corn stover, switchgrass, and willow and their pellet qualities. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2014. p. 727-731. (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014).