The interactions between organics and sand particles at different moisture contents are important in understanding the general mechanical behavior of rootzone sand mixtures. Towards this end, eight rootzone sand mixtures (4 shapes × 2 moisture contents) used in golf green construction were tested using the cubical triaxial tester (CTT). These eight mixtures consist of sphagnum peat as the organic source and four sands of varying particle shape (round, subround, subangular, and angular). The sand-peat mixtures were tested at two moisture contents (air-dried and 30 cm tension). Of all the test samples, air-dried round sand with peat had the highest initial bulk density (IBD) value (1.49g/cc), while moist angular sand with peat had the lowest IBD value (1.23g/cc). These values influenced the compression behavior of samples, for example, the air-dried round sand with peat was least compressible while moist angular sand with peat was most compressible. Generally, moisture enhanced the compressibility of test specimens. At an isotropic pressure of 100 kPa, the volumetric strain value of moist round sand with peat was 47% higher than the volumetric strain value of the air-dried round sand with peat. Consequently, moisture and peat in bulk sand samples act as lubricants and assist in the compression process. In addition, bulk modulus values decreased with moisture. Due to the dominant effect of peat, there were no large differences between bulk- modulus values of differeut particle shapes. The shear and failure responses of the above-mentioned eight compositions were also analyzed, compared, and modeled. Of all sand mixtures tested, air-dried angular sands with peat had the highest brittle-type failure stress value, 181 kPa at 34.5 kPa confining pressure, and moist subangular sand with peat had the lowest ductile-type failure stress value, 141 kPa at the same confining pressure. Shear modulus values increased with the increase of mean pressure, but in the case of sands containing both moisture and peat, shear modulus values increased gradually. Overall, peat and moisture content have a dominant effect on the compression and failure behavior of the rootzone sands.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)