Measuring emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

Felipe Montes, Sasha Hafner, Clarence Alan Rotz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to smog and ground-level ozone production. While the largest anthropogenic sources of VOCs in the US are industry and motor vehicles, there is evidence that significant emissions may come from dairy farms, and in particular, silage. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity and air flow were controlled to measure their influence on VOC emission rates from silage surfaces. Measurements of ethanol, methanol and acetic acid emissions were high immediately after fresh silage was exposed to circulating air, declined rapidly over the next 2 h, and then slowly declined over a 24 h period. A change in temperature from 5°C to 20°C caused up to a fourfold increase in emission rate, and the magnitude of this increase was different among the three compounds. The velocity of air moving over the silage affected VOC emission rate, cumulative emissions and the pattern of emissions through time. Predominant VOC emissions varied between corn, mixed grass-legume and alfalfa silages. Ethanol emissions were highest in corn silage, where 8-hour emissions sometimes exceeded 100 g/m2. Eight-hour cumulative methanol emissions were as high as 39 g/m2 from mixed grass-legume silage. These results have important implications for accurate field measurement of VOC emissions from silage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009
Pages2920-2932
Number of pages13
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009
EventAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009 - Reno, NV, United States
Duration: Jun 21 2009Jun 24 2009

Publication series

NameAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009
Volume5

Other

OtherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009
CountryUnited States
CityReno, NV
Period6/21/096/24/09

Fingerprint

Volatile Organic Compounds
Silage
volatile organic compounds
silage
Air
Poaceae
Fabaceae
Zea mays
Methanol
Ethanol
Smog
methanol
legumes
ethanol
Temperature
Medicago sativa
Ozone
grasses
Motor Vehicles
alfalfa silage

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Montes, F., Hafner, S., & Rotz, C. A. (2009). Measuring emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009 (pp. 2920-2932). (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009; Vol. 5).
Montes, Felipe ; Hafner, Sasha ; Rotz, Clarence Alan. / Measuring emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009. 2009. pp. 2920-2932 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009).
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abstract = "Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to smog and ground-level ozone production. While the largest anthropogenic sources of VOCs in the US are industry and motor vehicles, there is evidence that significant emissions may come from dairy farms, and in particular, silage. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity and air flow were controlled to measure their influence on VOC emission rates from silage surfaces. Measurements of ethanol, methanol and acetic acid emissions were high immediately after fresh silage was exposed to circulating air, declined rapidly over the next 2 h, and then slowly declined over a 24 h period. A change in temperature from 5°C to 20°C caused up to a fourfold increase in emission rate, and the magnitude of this increase was different among the three compounds. The velocity of air moving over the silage affected VOC emission rate, cumulative emissions and the pattern of emissions through time. Predominant VOC emissions varied between corn, mixed grass-legume and alfalfa silages. Ethanol emissions were highest in corn silage, where 8-hour emissions sometimes exceeded 100 g/m2. Eight-hour cumulative methanol emissions were as high as 39 g/m2 from mixed grass-legume silage. These results have important implications for accurate field measurement of VOC emissions from silage.",
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Montes, F, Hafner, S & Rotz, CA 2009, Measuring emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage. in American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009, vol. 5, pp. 2920-2932, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, Reno, NV, United States, 6/21/09.

Measuring emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage. / Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha; Rotz, Clarence Alan.

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009. 2009. p. 2920-2932 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009; Vol. 5).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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N2 - Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to smog and ground-level ozone production. While the largest anthropogenic sources of VOCs in the US are industry and motor vehicles, there is evidence that significant emissions may come from dairy farms, and in particular, silage. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity and air flow were controlled to measure their influence on VOC emission rates from silage surfaces. Measurements of ethanol, methanol and acetic acid emissions were high immediately after fresh silage was exposed to circulating air, declined rapidly over the next 2 h, and then slowly declined over a 24 h period. A change in temperature from 5°C to 20°C caused up to a fourfold increase in emission rate, and the magnitude of this increase was different among the three compounds. The velocity of air moving over the silage affected VOC emission rate, cumulative emissions and the pattern of emissions through time. Predominant VOC emissions varied between corn, mixed grass-legume and alfalfa silages. Ethanol emissions were highest in corn silage, where 8-hour emissions sometimes exceeded 100 g/m2. Eight-hour cumulative methanol emissions were as high as 39 g/m2 from mixed grass-legume silage. These results have important implications for accurate field measurement of VOC emissions from silage.

AB - Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to smog and ground-level ozone production. While the largest anthropogenic sources of VOCs in the US are industry and motor vehicles, there is evidence that significant emissions may come from dairy farms, and in particular, silage. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity and air flow were controlled to measure their influence on VOC emission rates from silage surfaces. Measurements of ethanol, methanol and acetic acid emissions were high immediately after fresh silage was exposed to circulating air, declined rapidly over the next 2 h, and then slowly declined over a 24 h period. A change in temperature from 5°C to 20°C caused up to a fourfold increase in emission rate, and the magnitude of this increase was different among the three compounds. The velocity of air moving over the silage affected VOC emission rate, cumulative emissions and the pattern of emissions through time. Predominant VOC emissions varied between corn, mixed grass-legume and alfalfa silages. Ethanol emissions were highest in corn silage, where 8-hour emissions sometimes exceeded 100 g/m2. Eight-hour cumulative methanol emissions were as high as 39 g/m2 from mixed grass-legume silage. These results have important implications for accurate field measurement of VOC emissions from silage.

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BT - American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009

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Montes F, Hafner S, Rotz CA. Measuring emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009. 2009. p. 2920-2932. (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, ASABE 2009).