According to the Centers for Disease Control, heart failure (HF) remains a pervasive condition with high morbidity and mortality, affecting 5.8 million people in the United States and 23 million worldwide. For patients with refractory end-stage HF, heart transplantation is the “gold standard” for definitive treatment. However, the demand for heart transplantation has consistently exceeded the availability of donor hearts, with approximately 2331 orthotopic heart transplantations performed in the United States in 2015 despite an estimated 100 000 to 250 000 patients with New York Heart Association class IIIB or IV symptoms that are refractory to medical treatment, making such patients potential transplant candidates. As such, the need for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) to treat patients with end-stage HF has become paramount. In this review, we focus on the history, advancements, and current use of durable MCS device therapy in the treatment of advanced heart failure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pharmacology (medical)