Recent studies have identified a role for mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) resistance to nucleoside analog RT inhibitors (NRTI). To provide insight into the biochemical mechanism(s) involved, we investigated the effect of the G333D mutation in the connection domain of RT on resistance to zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) in enzymes that contain both M184V and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs; M41L, L210W, and T215Y). Our results from steady-state kinetic, pre-steady-state kinetic, and thermodynamic analyses indicate that G333D facilitates dual resistance to AZT and 3TC in two ways. First, in combination with M184V, G333D increased the ability of HIV-1 RT to effectively discriminate between the normal substrate dCTP and 3TC-triphosphate. Second, G333D enhanced the ability of RT containing TAMs and M184V to bind template/primer terminated by AZT-monophosphate (AZT-MP), thereby restoring ATP-mediated excision of AZT-MP under steady-state assay conditions. This study is the first to elucidate a molecular mechanism whereby a mutation in the connection domain of RT can affect NRTI susceptibility at the enzyme level.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases