Mechanisms of phase separation in gel-based synthesis of multicomponent metal oxides

Y. Narendar, Gary Lynn Messing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

89 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The principles underlying metal oxide phase formation from multicomponent molecular gels are reviewed. The critical phase separation mechanisms operating at each stage of the gel process, viz. gel synthesis, gel thermolysis and oxide crystallization, are described with examples from the synthesis literature on aluminosilicates, cuprates and lead-based perovskites. It is demonstrated that direct crystallization of the equilibrium metal oxide requires synthesizing a cation-homogeneous gel, avoiding phase separation during thermolysis, and providing a low energy barrier for nucleation of the equilibrium phase. The influence of synthesis parameters and heating conditions on chemical phase separation are explained and guidelines for regulating the direct formation of metal oxides are outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-268
Number of pages22
JournalCatalysis Today
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 28 1997

Fingerprint

Phase separation
Oxides
Gels
Metals
Thermolysis
Crystallization
Aluminosilicates
Energy barriers
Phase equilibria
Cations
Nucleation
Lead
Positive ions
Heating

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

@article{5269baec275e40698863c6787515f28c,
title = "Mechanisms of phase separation in gel-based synthesis of multicomponent metal oxides",
abstract = "The principles underlying metal oxide phase formation from multicomponent molecular gels are reviewed. The critical phase separation mechanisms operating at each stage of the gel process, viz. gel synthesis, gel thermolysis and oxide crystallization, are described with examples from the synthesis literature on aluminosilicates, cuprates and lead-based perovskites. It is demonstrated that direct crystallization of the equilibrium metal oxide requires synthesizing a cation-homogeneous gel, avoiding phase separation during thermolysis, and providing a low energy barrier for nucleation of the equilibrium phase. The influence of synthesis parameters and heating conditions on chemical phase separation are explained and guidelines for regulating the direct formation of metal oxides are outlined.",
author = "Y. Narendar and Messing, {Gary Lynn}",
year = "1997",
month = "3",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1016/S0920-5861(96)00160-5",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "35",
pages = "247--268",
journal = "Catalysis Today",
issn = "0920-5861",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

Mechanisms of phase separation in gel-based synthesis of multicomponent metal oxides. / Narendar, Y.; Messing, Gary Lynn.

In: Catalysis Today, Vol. 35, No. 3, 28.03.1997, p. 247-268.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanisms of phase separation in gel-based synthesis of multicomponent metal oxides

AU - Narendar, Y.

AU - Messing, Gary Lynn

PY - 1997/3/28

Y1 - 1997/3/28

N2 - The principles underlying metal oxide phase formation from multicomponent molecular gels are reviewed. The critical phase separation mechanisms operating at each stage of the gel process, viz. gel synthesis, gel thermolysis and oxide crystallization, are described with examples from the synthesis literature on aluminosilicates, cuprates and lead-based perovskites. It is demonstrated that direct crystallization of the equilibrium metal oxide requires synthesizing a cation-homogeneous gel, avoiding phase separation during thermolysis, and providing a low energy barrier for nucleation of the equilibrium phase. The influence of synthesis parameters and heating conditions on chemical phase separation are explained and guidelines for regulating the direct formation of metal oxides are outlined.

AB - The principles underlying metal oxide phase formation from multicomponent molecular gels are reviewed. The critical phase separation mechanisms operating at each stage of the gel process, viz. gel synthesis, gel thermolysis and oxide crystallization, are described with examples from the synthesis literature on aluminosilicates, cuprates and lead-based perovskites. It is demonstrated that direct crystallization of the equilibrium metal oxide requires synthesizing a cation-homogeneous gel, avoiding phase separation during thermolysis, and providing a low energy barrier for nucleation of the equilibrium phase. The influence of synthesis parameters and heating conditions on chemical phase separation are explained and guidelines for regulating the direct formation of metal oxides are outlined.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031095515&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031095515&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0920-5861(96)00160-5

DO - 10.1016/S0920-5861(96)00160-5

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0031095515

VL - 35

SP - 247

EP - 268

JO - Catalysis Today

JF - Catalysis Today

SN - 0920-5861

IS - 3

ER -