Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE A and Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology convective systems and associated tracer transport

Y. Wang, W. K. Tao, K. E. Pickering, Anne Mee Thompson, J. S. Kain, R. F. Adler, J. Simpson, P. R. Keehn, G. S. Lai

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A tropical mesoscale convective system (MCS) during the Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) experiment and a midlatitude squall line during Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (PRESTORM) were simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Pennsylvania State University (NCAR/PSU) MM5 model. For the TRACE A case the model simulation predicted locations of convection systems fairly accurately compared with satellite images and the rainfall pattern from rain gauge data. For the PRESTORM case the model simulation captured many observed features such as the rainfall field and wind circulation pattern. Model simulated wind fields were used to transport an inert tracer (CO) in the mesoscale systems. Tracer transport in the two convective systems (TRACE A-tropical MCS versus PRESTORM midlatitude squall line) are substantially different over 24-hour simulation periods and over the regional scale (about 2000 X 2000 km domains). The time-evolving tracer fields in the upper troposphere are different in the tropical MCS and midlatitude squall line regimes as a consequence of different propagation speeds of the two convective systems. The nearly "stationary" tropical MCS produced regions of large upper tropospheric CO mixing ratios that had moved very little in the horizontal by the end of the 24-hour simulation. The enhanced upper tropospheric CO region propagates with the "fast-moving" squall line in the midlatitude case. Model transport and redistribution of CO agrees well with aircraft measurements in the TRACE A case. Significant subgrid-scale (parameterized) upward transport (48% with Grell scheme, 41% with Kain-Fritsch scheme) occurred in the TRACE A case. The subgrid upward transport in the PRESTORM event was even greater, accounting for 64% of total upward transport. Downward transport in both events was dominated by grid-scale motions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24013-24027
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Volume101
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 30 1996

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Atmospheric chemistry
atmospheric chemistry
Meteorology
convective system
meteorology
equators
tracers
tracer techniques
Carbon Monoxide
squall line
simulation models
tracer
temperate regions
simulation
experiment
Experiments
Rain
Rain gages
rain gauges
rain

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Wang, Y. ; Tao, W. K. ; Pickering, K. E. ; Thompson, Anne Mee ; Kain, J. S. ; Adler, R. F. ; Simpson, J. ; Keehn, P. R. ; Lai, G. S. / Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE A and Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology convective systems and associated tracer transport. In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 1996 ; Vol. 101, No. 19. pp. 24013-24027.
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title = "Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE A and Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology convective systems and associated tracer transport",
abstract = "A tropical mesoscale convective system (MCS) during the Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) experiment and a midlatitude squall line during Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (PRESTORM) were simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Pennsylvania State University (NCAR/PSU) MM5 model. For the TRACE A case the model simulation predicted locations of convection systems fairly accurately compared with satellite images and the rainfall pattern from rain gauge data. For the PRESTORM case the model simulation captured many observed features such as the rainfall field and wind circulation pattern. Model simulated wind fields were used to transport an inert tracer (CO) in the mesoscale systems. Tracer transport in the two convective systems (TRACE A-tropical MCS versus PRESTORM midlatitude squall line) are substantially different over 24-hour simulation periods and over the regional scale (about 2000 X 2000 km domains). The time-evolving tracer fields in the upper troposphere are different in the tropical MCS and midlatitude squall line regimes as a consequence of different propagation speeds of the two convective systems. The nearly {"}stationary{"} tropical MCS produced regions of large upper tropospheric CO mixing ratios that had moved very little in the horizontal by the end of the 24-hour simulation. The enhanced upper tropospheric CO region propagates with the {"}fast-moving{"} squall line in the midlatitude case. Model transport and redistribution of CO agrees well with aircraft measurements in the TRACE A case. Significant subgrid-scale (parameterized) upward transport (48{\%} with Grell scheme, 41{\%} with Kain-Fritsch scheme) occurred in the TRACE A case. The subgrid upward transport in the PRESTORM event was even greater, accounting for 64{\%} of total upward transport. Downward transport in both events was dominated by grid-scale motions.",
author = "Y. Wang and Tao, {W. K.} and Pickering, {K. E.} and Thompson, {Anne Mee} and Kain, {J. S.} and Adler, {R. F.} and J. Simpson and Keehn, {P. R.} and Lai, {G. S.}",
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Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE A and Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology convective systems and associated tracer transport. / Wang, Y.; Tao, W. K.; Pickering, K. E.; Thompson, Anne Mee; Kain, J. S.; Adler, R. F.; Simpson, J.; Keehn, P. R.; Lai, G. S.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, Vol. 101, No. 19, 30.10.1996, p. 24013-24027.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE A and Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology convective systems and associated tracer transport

AU - Wang, Y.

AU - Tao, W. K.

AU - Pickering, K. E.

AU - Thompson, Anne Mee

AU - Kain, J. S.

AU - Adler, R. F.

AU - Simpson, J.

AU - Keehn, P. R.

AU - Lai, G. S.

PY - 1996/10/30

Y1 - 1996/10/30

N2 - A tropical mesoscale convective system (MCS) during the Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) experiment and a midlatitude squall line during Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (PRESTORM) were simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Pennsylvania State University (NCAR/PSU) MM5 model. For the TRACE A case the model simulation predicted locations of convection systems fairly accurately compared with satellite images and the rainfall pattern from rain gauge data. For the PRESTORM case the model simulation captured many observed features such as the rainfall field and wind circulation pattern. Model simulated wind fields were used to transport an inert tracer (CO) in the mesoscale systems. Tracer transport in the two convective systems (TRACE A-tropical MCS versus PRESTORM midlatitude squall line) are substantially different over 24-hour simulation periods and over the regional scale (about 2000 X 2000 km domains). The time-evolving tracer fields in the upper troposphere are different in the tropical MCS and midlatitude squall line regimes as a consequence of different propagation speeds of the two convective systems. The nearly "stationary" tropical MCS produced regions of large upper tropospheric CO mixing ratios that had moved very little in the horizontal by the end of the 24-hour simulation. The enhanced upper tropospheric CO region propagates with the "fast-moving" squall line in the midlatitude case. Model transport and redistribution of CO agrees well with aircraft measurements in the TRACE A case. Significant subgrid-scale (parameterized) upward transport (48% with Grell scheme, 41% with Kain-Fritsch scheme) occurred in the TRACE A case. The subgrid upward transport in the PRESTORM event was even greater, accounting for 64% of total upward transport. Downward transport in both events was dominated by grid-scale motions.

AB - A tropical mesoscale convective system (MCS) during the Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) experiment and a midlatitude squall line during Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (PRESTORM) were simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Pennsylvania State University (NCAR/PSU) MM5 model. For the TRACE A case the model simulation predicted locations of convection systems fairly accurately compared with satellite images and the rainfall pattern from rain gauge data. For the PRESTORM case the model simulation captured many observed features such as the rainfall field and wind circulation pattern. Model simulated wind fields were used to transport an inert tracer (CO) in the mesoscale systems. Tracer transport in the two convective systems (TRACE A-tropical MCS versus PRESTORM midlatitude squall line) are substantially different over 24-hour simulation periods and over the regional scale (about 2000 X 2000 km domains). The time-evolving tracer fields in the upper troposphere are different in the tropical MCS and midlatitude squall line regimes as a consequence of different propagation speeds of the two convective systems. The nearly "stationary" tropical MCS produced regions of large upper tropospheric CO mixing ratios that had moved very little in the horizontal by the end of the 24-hour simulation. The enhanced upper tropospheric CO region propagates with the "fast-moving" squall line in the midlatitude case. Model transport and redistribution of CO agrees well with aircraft measurements in the TRACE A case. Significant subgrid-scale (parameterized) upward transport (48% with Grell scheme, 41% with Kain-Fritsch scheme) occurred in the TRACE A case. The subgrid upward transport in the PRESTORM event was even greater, accounting for 64% of total upward transport. Downward transport in both events was dominated by grid-scale motions.

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