BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, the spectrum of causative organisms, and associated visual acuity outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PubMed articles containing the keywords "endophthalmitis" and "intravitreal" between January 2005 and May 2012 were identified and reviewed. Inclusion criteria included article in English, more than 100 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, and report of adverse events including endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection. RESULTS: Forty-three articles were analyzed. Endophthalmitis occurred after 197 of 350,535 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections (0.056%). The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (38.24%) and Streptococcus species (29.41%). CONCLUSION: The reported rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection is low. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species were the most frequent causative organisms. Streptococcus species represent the causative organism of endophthalmitis after intravitreal VEGF injections at a higher rate than rates reported in the literature for endophthalmitis following most incisional intraocular surgeries. Among patients with endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection, endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species is associated with poorer visual acuity outcomes than endophthalmitis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and culture-negative cases.
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