Microorganisms from extreme environments represent an expanding pool of untapped transformation capacity and were applied in the conversion of cellulosic hydrolysates to organic acids. Novel metabolism of products from supercritical water hydrolysis by the hyperthermophilic bacterium, Thermotoga maritima, is presented. These results demonstrate the ability of extremophiles to transform components that inhibit conventional microbial systems. The expanded application of these research activities will help develop biocatalytic conversions as environmentally beneficial strategies for the production of fuels and chemicals. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AIChE 2010 Spring National Meeting (San Antonio, TX 3/21-25/2010).