This manuscript describes the stepwise, ligand-directed assembly, characterization, and prospective applications of three-dimensional Au and Ag nanoparticle, multlilayered films. Films were prepared by successive treatments of a Au nanoparticle monolayer with a bifunctional cross-linker and colloidal Au or Ag solutions. Changes in film electrical and optical properties are reported for a series of bifunctional cross-linkers of varying molecular lengths. Interestingly, these films exhibit Beer's law behavior despite the presence of strong interparticle optical coupling. Multilayer films with greater than six exposures to 2-mercaptoethylamine and Au colloid were highly conductive and resembled bulk Au in appearance. In contrast, films of similar particle coverage generated using a longer cross-linker (1,6-hexanedithiol) exhibited higher transmission in the near-infrared region and exhibited a reduced conductivity. Measurement of the multilayer morphology with atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous, discontinuous morphology composed of large, continuous regions of aggregated nanoparticles. This, in turn, results in a surface roughness contribution to surface plasmon scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering observed for Au, Au/Ag, and Ag colloid multilayers. Particulate.multilayer films made using horseradish peroxidase as a cross-linker remained enzymatically active, even beneath three layers of colloidal Au. Multilayers could also be prepared on surfaces patterned by microcontact printing. These data show how Au colloid multilayers grown in solution are a viable alternative to evaporated metal films for a number of applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Chemistry