Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used clinically for prostate cancer diagnostics and as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy and recurrence. Several human chemoprevention trials are being conducted to validate the prostate cancer prevention efficacy of selenium and PSA is used in these trials as a biomarker of response. A better understanding of the effects of selenium metabolites on the kinetics of PSA turnover and secretion in prostate cancer cells treated with selenium at concentrations which are achievable physiologically will be important for interpreting the results of these trials. This study addresses whether the putative active anticancer selenium metabolite methylselenol or its precursor methylseleninic acid (MSeA) specifically inhibits PSA expression in the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell model. The results show that exposure to sub-apoptotic concentrations of MSeA and methylselenol inhibited PSA protein expression and secretion, whereas sodium selenite and selenomethionine lacked inhibitory effect. The inhibition was detectable at 3 h of exposure and required a threshold level of MSeA to sustain. Turnover experiments showed that MSeA caused rapid PSA degradation, which was partially blocked by lysosomal inhibitors, but not by a proteasomal inhibitor. Furthermore, MSeA treatment reduced PSA mRNA level, down-regulated androgen receptor protein expression, and inhibited androgen-stimulated PSA promoter transcription. In summary, methylselenol or MSeA specifically and rapidly inhibited PSA expression through two mechanisms of action: inducing PSA protein degradation and suppressing androgen-stimulated PSA transcription. These findings may have important mechanistic implications for the prostate specific cancer chemopreventive action of selenium.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Molecular cancer therapeutics|
|State||Published - May 2004|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research