This article reviews state-of-the-art microfluidic biosensors of nucleic acids and proteins for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Microfluidics is capable of analyzing small sample volumes (10-9-10-18 l) and minimizing costly reagent consumption as well as automating sample preparation and reducing processing time. The merger of microfluidics and advanced biosensor technologies offers new promises for POC diagnostics, including high-throughput analysis, portability and disposability. However, this merger also imposes technological challenges on biosensors, such as high sensitivity and selectivity requirements with sample volumes orders of magnitude smaller than those of conventional practices, false response errors due to non-specific adsorption, and integrability with other necessary modules. There have been many prior review articles on microfluidic-based biosensors, and this review focuses on the recent progress in last 5 years. Herein, we review general technologies of DNA and protein biosensors. Then, recent advances on the coupling of the biosensors to microfluidics are highlighted. Finally, we discuss the key challenges and potential solutions for transforming microfluidic biosensors into POC diagnostic applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Materials Chemistry