Microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of Gd 2O 3/Si(111) grown by electron-beam physical vapor deposition

Xiaojun Weng, Daniel A. Grave, Zachary R. Hughes, Douglas Edward Wolfe, Joshua Alexander Robinson

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux on the microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3) films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron-beam physical vapor deposition were investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, scanning TEM, x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, and electron energy loss spectrometry. The authors find that a low growth temperature (250 °C) and a high oxygen flux (200 sccm) led to a small grain size and a high porosity of the Gd 2O 3 film. Lowering the oxygen flux to 50 sccm led to reduced film porosity, presumably due to the increased diffusion length of the Gd atoms on the surface. Increasing the growth temperature to 650 deg:C resulted in a film with large columnar grains and elongated pores at the grain boundaries. Thin films grown at 250 C consisted of cubic Gd 2O 3, but thermodynamically less stable monoclinic phase formed as the film thickness increased. Lowering the oxygen flux apparently further promoted the formation of the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, monoclinic phase dominated in the films grown at 650 °C. Such phase transitions may be related to the stress evolution of the films at different temperatures, thicknesses, and oxygen fluxes. Enhanced Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction was observed as the growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux increased. Moreover, oxygen was found to play a crucial role in the Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction and the formation of Gd-Si-O interface layers, which proceeded by the reaction of excess oxygen with Si followed by the intermixing of SiO x and Gd 2O 3.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number041512
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Volume30
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2012

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Physical vapor deposition
Surface chemistry
Electron beams
Phase transitions
vapor deposition
electron beams
chemistry
Oxygen
microstructure
Microstructure
Growth temperature
oxygen
Fluxes
Film thickness
film thickness
porosity
Spectrometry
Porosity
temperature
Transmission electron microscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

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title = "Microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of Gd 2O 3/Si(111) grown by electron-beam physical vapor deposition",
abstract = "The effects of growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux on the microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3) films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron-beam physical vapor deposition were investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, scanning TEM, x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, and electron energy loss spectrometry. The authors find that a low growth temperature (250 °C) and a high oxygen flux (200 sccm) led to a small grain size and a high porosity of the Gd 2O 3 film. Lowering the oxygen flux to 50 sccm led to reduced film porosity, presumably due to the increased diffusion length of the Gd atoms on the surface. Increasing the growth temperature to 650 deg:C resulted in a film with large columnar grains and elongated pores at the grain boundaries. Thin films grown at 250 C consisted of cubic Gd 2O 3, but thermodynamically less stable monoclinic phase formed as the film thickness increased. Lowering the oxygen flux apparently further promoted the formation of the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, monoclinic phase dominated in the films grown at 650 °C. Such phase transitions may be related to the stress evolution of the films at different temperatures, thicknesses, and oxygen fluxes. Enhanced Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction was observed as the growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux increased. Moreover, oxygen was found to play a crucial role in the Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction and the formation of Gd-Si-O interface layers, which proceeded by the reaction of excess oxygen with Si followed by the intermixing of SiO x and Gd 2O 3.",
author = "Xiaojun Weng and Grave, {Daniel A.} and Hughes, {Zachary R.} and Wolfe, {Douglas Edward} and Robinson, {Joshua Alexander}",
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T1 - Microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of Gd 2O 3/Si(111) grown by electron-beam physical vapor deposition

AU - Weng, Xiaojun

AU - Grave, Daniel A.

AU - Hughes, Zachary R.

AU - Wolfe, Douglas Edward

AU - Robinson, Joshua Alexander

PY - 2012/7/1

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N2 - The effects of growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux on the microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3) films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron-beam physical vapor deposition were investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, scanning TEM, x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, and electron energy loss spectrometry. The authors find that a low growth temperature (250 °C) and a high oxygen flux (200 sccm) led to a small grain size and a high porosity of the Gd 2O 3 film. Lowering the oxygen flux to 50 sccm led to reduced film porosity, presumably due to the increased diffusion length of the Gd atoms on the surface. Increasing the growth temperature to 650 deg:C resulted in a film with large columnar grains and elongated pores at the grain boundaries. Thin films grown at 250 C consisted of cubic Gd 2O 3, but thermodynamically less stable monoclinic phase formed as the film thickness increased. Lowering the oxygen flux apparently further promoted the formation of the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, monoclinic phase dominated in the films grown at 650 °C. Such phase transitions may be related to the stress evolution of the films at different temperatures, thicknesses, and oxygen fluxes. Enhanced Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction was observed as the growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux increased. Moreover, oxygen was found to play a crucial role in the Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction and the formation of Gd-Si-O interface layers, which proceeded by the reaction of excess oxygen with Si followed by the intermixing of SiO x and Gd 2O 3.

AB - The effects of growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux on the microstructure, phase transition, and interfacial chemistry of gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3) films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron-beam physical vapor deposition were investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, scanning TEM, x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, and electron energy loss spectrometry. The authors find that a low growth temperature (250 °C) and a high oxygen flux (200 sccm) led to a small grain size and a high porosity of the Gd 2O 3 film. Lowering the oxygen flux to 50 sccm led to reduced film porosity, presumably due to the increased diffusion length of the Gd atoms on the surface. Increasing the growth temperature to 650 deg:C resulted in a film with large columnar grains and elongated pores at the grain boundaries. Thin films grown at 250 C consisted of cubic Gd 2O 3, but thermodynamically less stable monoclinic phase formed as the film thickness increased. Lowering the oxygen flux apparently further promoted the formation of the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, monoclinic phase dominated in the films grown at 650 °C. Such phase transitions may be related to the stress evolution of the films at different temperatures, thicknesses, and oxygen fluxes. Enhanced Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction was observed as the growth temperature, film thickness, and oxygen flux increased. Moreover, oxygen was found to play a crucial role in the Gd 2O 3/Si interfacial reaction and the formation of Gd-Si-O interface layers, which proceeded by the reaction of excess oxygen with Si followed by the intermixing of SiO x and Gd 2O 3.

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