Microwave sintering of refractory metals/alloys: W, Mo, Re, W-Cu, W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe alloys

Avijit Mondal, Dinesh Agrawal, Anish Upadhyaya

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Refractory metals and alloys are well known for their high mechanical properties which make them useful for wide range of high temperature applications. However, owing to the refractoriness of these metals and alloys, it is very difficult to consolidate them under moderate conditions. Conventional P/M processing is a viable sintering technique for these refractory metals. One of the constraints in conventional sintering is long residence time which results in undesirable microstructural coarsening. This problem gets further aggravated when using smaller (submicron and nano) precursor powder sizes. Furthermore, conventional heating is mostly radiative, which leads to non-uniform heating in large components. This review article describes recent research findings about how these refractory metals and alloys (W, Mo, Re, W-Cu, W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe) have been successfully consolidated using microwave sintering. A comparative study with conventional data has been made. In most cases, microwave sintering resulted in an overall reduction of sintering time of up to 80%. This sintering time reduction prevents grain growth substantially providing finer microstructure and as a result better mechanical properties have been observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-44
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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