Milk products, dietary patterns and blood pressure management

Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton, Jessica A. Grieger, Kirsten F. Hilpert, Sheila Grace West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and kidney disease. Inverse associations between dairy product consumption and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) have been observed in cross-sectional studies; some studies, however, have reported an inverse association with only one BP parameter, predominantly SBP. Randomized clinical trials examining the effect of calcium and the combination of calcium, potassium and magnesium provide evidence for causality. In these studies, reductions in BP were generally modest (−1.27 to −4.6 mmHg for SBP, and −0.24 to −3.8 mmHg for DBP). Dairy nutrients, most notably calcium, potassium and magnesium, have been shown to have a blood pressure lowering effect. A low calcium intake increases intracellular calcium concentrations which increases 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH), causing calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in greater vascular resistance. New research indicates that dairy peptides may act as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thereby inhibiting the renin angiotensin system with consequent vasodilation. A growing evidence base shows that dairy product consumption is involved in the regulation of BP. Consequently, inclusion of dairy products in a heart healthy diet is an important focal point to attain BP benefits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103S-119S
JournalJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Volume28
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009

Fingerprint

Milk
Blood Pressure
Calcium
Dairy Products
Magnesium
Heart Diseases
Potassium
Calcitriol
Kidney Diseases
Renin-Angiotensin System
Parathyroid Hormone
Vascular Smooth Muscle
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Vasodilation
Causality
Vascular Resistance
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Randomized Controlled Trials
Heart Failure
Cross-Sectional Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

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Milk products, dietary patterns and blood pressure management. / Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret; Grieger, Jessica A.; Hilpert, Kirsten F.; West, Sheila Grace.

In: Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 28, 01.02.2009, p. 103S-119S.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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