Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

26 Scopus citations


Recent studies in computer human factors indicate that novice learners of office systems are 'active', preferring self-initiated problem solving to rote drill and practice as a learning strategy. But in high-function systems users may need help in exploring basic functions without being distracted by advanced material. Two experimental approaches to this problem are outlined: The MINIMAL MANUAL attempts to support active learning by providing concise instruction focussed on easy-to-understand goals. The TRAINING WHEELS WORD PROCESSOR encourages exploration of basic functions by disabling the more advanced functions that can distract and confuse novices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication Title
EditorsBrian Shackel
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)0444877738
StatePublished - Dec 1 1985

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)

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  • Cite this

    Carroll, J. (1985). MINIMALIST DESIGN FOR ACTIVE USERS. In B. Shackel (Ed.), Unknown Host Publication Title (pp. 39-44). North-Holland.