Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

Justin Schwartz, Ekhson Holmuhamedov, Xun Zhang, Gregory L. Lovelace, Charles Smith, John J. Lemasters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20min prior to exposure to 500μM iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20min prior to reperfusion. Ca2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)172-179
Number of pages8
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume273
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 2013

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Cell Hypoxia
Minocycline
Doxycycline
Tetracycline
Reperfusion Injury
Liver
Reperfusion
Hepatocytes
Ischemia
Cells
Rats
Permeability
Iodoacetic Acid
HEPES
Fluorometry
Mitochondria
Cytoprotection
Propidium
Liver Mitochondrion
Depolarization

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Schwartz, Justin ; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson ; Zhang, Xun ; Lovelace, Gregory L. ; Smith, Charles ; Lemasters, John J. / Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2013 ; Vol. 273, No. 1. pp. 172-179.
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abstract = "Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20min prior to exposure to 500μM iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20min prior to reperfusion. Ca2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87{\%}, which decreased to 28{\%} and 42{\%} with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120min decreased from 79{\%} with vehicle to 43{\%} and 49{\%} with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU.",
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Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. / Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles; Lemasters, John J.

In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 273, No. 1, 15.11.2013, p. 172-179.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

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AB - Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20min prior to exposure to 500μM iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20min prior to reperfusion. Ca2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU.

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