Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Archean atmosphere was likely a weakly reduced mixture composed predominantly of N2 and CO2, with smaller concentrations of H2, CO, and CH4. Both CO2 and N2 may have been present in abundances exceeding today's values, by a factor of 2 or more for N2 and by factors of 100 or more for CO2. Published upper limits on CO2 from paleosols and banded iron formations are probably invalid; hence, CO2 could have been the dominant greenhouse gas that compensated for the fainter young Sun. The Archean greenhouse effect was likely supplemented by CH4, which could have risen to levels of 1000ppmv or more once methanogens had evolved. Warming by CH4 was limited to approximately 10-12°, however, by formation of organic haze. The key to analyzing Archean atmospheric composition is to understand the hydrogen budget of the atmosphere in which outgassing of H2 and other reduced gases from volcanoes was balanced by loss of hydrogen to space and burial of organic carbon in sediments. The mixing ratio of O2 in such a weakly reduced atmosphere would have been extremely low, roughly 10-13 at the surface, increasing to ~10-3 in the upper stratosphere. A rise in O2 just after the end of the Archean may have eliminated the methane greenhouse and triggered the Paleoproterozoic glaciations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTreatise on Geochemistry
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages157-175
Number of pages19
Volume6
ISBN (Print)9780080983004
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013

Fingerprint

Archean
Hydrogen
Atmospheric composition
Methanogens
Greenhouse effect
Upper atmosphere
Volcanoes
atmosphere
Degassing
Greenhouses
Methane
climate
Carbon Monoxide
Organic carbon
Greenhouse gases
modeling
Sediments
Iron
Gases
hydrogen

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Kasting, J. (2013). Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate. In Treatise on Geochemistry: Second Edition (Vol. 6, pp. 157-175). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01306-1
Kasting, James. / Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate. Treatise on Geochemistry: Second Edition. Vol. 6 Elsevier Inc., 2013. pp. 157-175
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Kasting, J 2013, Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate. in Treatise on Geochemistry: Second Edition. vol. 6, Elsevier Inc., pp. 157-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01306-1

Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate. / Kasting, James.

Treatise on Geochemistry: Second Edition. Vol. 6 Elsevier Inc., 2013. p. 157-175.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Kasting J. Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate. In Treatise on Geochemistry: Second Edition. Vol. 6. Elsevier Inc. 2013. p. 157-175 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01306-1