Moderate-magnitude earthquakes induced by magma reservoir inflation at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

Christelle Wauthier, Diana C. Roman, Michael P. Poland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes often occur in response to magma intrusion, it is rare for them to have magnitudes larger than ∼M4. On 24 May 2007, two shallow M4+ earthquakes occurred beneath the upper part of the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i. An integrated analysis of geodetic, seismic, and field data, together with Coulomb stress modeling, demonstrates that the earthquakes occurred due to strike-slip motion on pre-existing faults that bound Kilauea Caldera to the southeast and that the pressurization of Kilauea's summit magma system may have been sufficient to promote faulting. For the first time, we infer a plausible origin to generate rare moderate-magnitude VTs at Kilauea by reactivation of suitably oriented pre-existing caldera-bounding faults. Rare moderate- to large-magnitude VTs at Kilauea and other volcanoes can therefore result from reactivation of existing fault planes due to stresses induced by magmatic processes. Key Points Unusual M4+ earthquakes at Kilauea triggered by ongoing summit inflation Summit inflation and lateral faulting consistent with seismic and geodetic data Reactivation of faults by magmatic stresses explain large VTs at volcanoes

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5366-5370
Number of pages5
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume40
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 28 2013

Fingerprint

earthquake magnitude
inflation
magma chamber
volcanoes
magma
earthquakes
volcano
reactivation
datum (elevation)
earthquake
calderas
caldera
faulting
geodetic datum
rift zone
fault plane
intrusion
tectonics
seismic data
slip

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

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abstract = "Although volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes often occur in response to magma intrusion, it is rare for them to have magnitudes larger than ∼M4. On 24 May 2007, two shallow M4+ earthquakes occurred beneath the upper part of the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i. An integrated analysis of geodetic, seismic, and field data, together with Coulomb stress modeling, demonstrates that the earthquakes occurred due to strike-slip motion on pre-existing faults that bound Kilauea Caldera to the southeast and that the pressurization of Kilauea's summit magma system may have been sufficient to promote faulting. For the first time, we infer a plausible origin to generate rare moderate-magnitude VTs at Kilauea by reactivation of suitably oriented pre-existing caldera-bounding faults. Rare moderate- to large-magnitude VTs at Kilauea and other volcanoes can therefore result from reactivation of existing fault planes due to stresses induced by magmatic processes. Key Points Unusual M4+ earthquakes at Kilauea triggered by ongoing summit inflation Summit inflation and lateral faulting consistent with seismic and geodetic data Reactivation of faults by magmatic stresses explain large VTs at volcanoes",
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Moderate-magnitude earthquakes induced by magma reservoir inflation at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i. / Wauthier, Christelle; Roman, Diana C.; Poland, Michael P.

In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, No. 20, 28.10.2013, p. 5366-5370.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Although volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes often occur in response to magma intrusion, it is rare for them to have magnitudes larger than ∼M4. On 24 May 2007, two shallow M4+ earthquakes occurred beneath the upper part of the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i. An integrated analysis of geodetic, seismic, and field data, together with Coulomb stress modeling, demonstrates that the earthquakes occurred due to strike-slip motion on pre-existing faults that bound Kilauea Caldera to the southeast and that the pressurization of Kilauea's summit magma system may have been sufficient to promote faulting. For the first time, we infer a plausible origin to generate rare moderate-magnitude VTs at Kilauea by reactivation of suitably oriented pre-existing caldera-bounding faults. Rare moderate- to large-magnitude VTs at Kilauea and other volcanoes can therefore result from reactivation of existing fault planes due to stresses induced by magmatic processes. Key Points Unusual M4+ earthquakes at Kilauea triggered by ongoing summit inflation Summit inflation and lateral faulting consistent with seismic and geodetic data Reactivation of faults by magmatic stresses explain large VTs at volcanoes

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