Modification of the Penn State Forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements

P. J. Kononoff, Arlyn Judson Heinrichs, D. R. Buckmaster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

287 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Penn State Particle Separator has led to widespread measurement of forage and total mixed ration (TMR) particle size. However, a large proportion of small particles may pass through both sieves when a TMR is analyzed, and field research has suggested that both shaking frequency and sample dry matter may affect the results. The objectives of this project were to test the effects of an additional sieve with a smaller aperture size, shaking frequency, and sample moisture content on results obtained. A sieve was constructed out of wire with a nominal size aperture of 1.18 mm. Samples of alfalfa haylage, corn silage, and a TMR were shaken at frequencies of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.6 Hz with a 17-cm stroke length. Reducing shaking frequency to 0.9 Hz resulted in more material being retained on the 19.0-mm sieve for all sample types, increasing the geometric mean. Increasing frequency to 1.6 Hz did not affect the geometric mean, but did result in a greater amount of corn silage falling through the 1.18-mm sieve. For alfalfa haylage, moisture content between 57.4 and 35.6% did not affect results; however, for corn silage, less moisture increased the percentage of particles less than 1.18 mm and decreased the geometric mean. For both sample types, further drying caused a greater proportion of small particles and a smaller geometric mean. We suggest using a third sieve and shaking at 1.1 Hz or greater with a stroke length of 17 cm when using the Penn State Particle Separator to analyze forage particle size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1858-1863
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of dairy science
Volume86
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

Fingerprint

separators
Silage
total mixed rations
sieves
Zea mays
Medicago sativa
forage
water content
Particle Size
Stroke
corn silage
haylage
stroke
particle size
alfalfa
sampling
wire
Research
drying
testing

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

@article{7e2e8442f1f544a3acc71d169ae0f8d8,
title = "Modification of the Penn State Forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements",
abstract = "The Penn State Particle Separator has led to widespread measurement of forage and total mixed ration (TMR) particle size. However, a large proportion of small particles may pass through both sieves when a TMR is analyzed, and field research has suggested that both shaking frequency and sample dry matter may affect the results. The objectives of this project were to test the effects of an additional sieve with a smaller aperture size, shaking frequency, and sample moisture content on results obtained. A sieve was constructed out of wire with a nominal size aperture of 1.18 mm. Samples of alfalfa haylage, corn silage, and a TMR were shaken at frequencies of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.6 Hz with a 17-cm stroke length. Reducing shaking frequency to 0.9 Hz resulted in more material being retained on the 19.0-mm sieve for all sample types, increasing the geometric mean. Increasing frequency to 1.6 Hz did not affect the geometric mean, but did result in a greater amount of corn silage falling through the 1.18-mm sieve. For alfalfa haylage, moisture content between 57.4 and 35.6{\%} did not affect results; however, for corn silage, less moisture increased the percentage of particles less than 1.18 mm and decreased the geometric mean. For both sample types, further drying caused a greater proportion of small particles and a smaller geometric mean. We suggest using a third sieve and shaking at 1.1 Hz or greater with a stroke length of 17 cm when using the Penn State Particle Separator to analyze forage particle size.",
author = "Kononoff, {P. J.} and Heinrichs, {Arlyn Judson} and Buckmaster, {D. R.}",
year = "2003",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73773-4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "86",
pages = "1858--1863",
journal = "Journal of Dairy Science",
issn = "0022-0302",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "5",

}

Modification of the Penn State Forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements. / Kononoff, P. J.; Heinrichs, Arlyn Judson; Buckmaster, D. R.

In: Journal of dairy science, Vol. 86, No. 5, 01.01.2003, p. 1858-1863.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modification of the Penn State Forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements

AU - Kononoff, P. J.

AU - Heinrichs, Arlyn Judson

AU - Buckmaster, D. R.

PY - 2003/1/1

Y1 - 2003/1/1

N2 - The Penn State Particle Separator has led to widespread measurement of forage and total mixed ration (TMR) particle size. However, a large proportion of small particles may pass through both sieves when a TMR is analyzed, and field research has suggested that both shaking frequency and sample dry matter may affect the results. The objectives of this project were to test the effects of an additional sieve with a smaller aperture size, shaking frequency, and sample moisture content on results obtained. A sieve was constructed out of wire with a nominal size aperture of 1.18 mm. Samples of alfalfa haylage, corn silage, and a TMR were shaken at frequencies of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.6 Hz with a 17-cm stroke length. Reducing shaking frequency to 0.9 Hz resulted in more material being retained on the 19.0-mm sieve for all sample types, increasing the geometric mean. Increasing frequency to 1.6 Hz did not affect the geometric mean, but did result in a greater amount of corn silage falling through the 1.18-mm sieve. For alfalfa haylage, moisture content between 57.4 and 35.6% did not affect results; however, for corn silage, less moisture increased the percentage of particles less than 1.18 mm and decreased the geometric mean. For both sample types, further drying caused a greater proportion of small particles and a smaller geometric mean. We suggest using a third sieve and shaking at 1.1 Hz or greater with a stroke length of 17 cm when using the Penn State Particle Separator to analyze forage particle size.

AB - The Penn State Particle Separator has led to widespread measurement of forage and total mixed ration (TMR) particle size. However, a large proportion of small particles may pass through both sieves when a TMR is analyzed, and field research has suggested that both shaking frequency and sample dry matter may affect the results. The objectives of this project were to test the effects of an additional sieve with a smaller aperture size, shaking frequency, and sample moisture content on results obtained. A sieve was constructed out of wire with a nominal size aperture of 1.18 mm. Samples of alfalfa haylage, corn silage, and a TMR were shaken at frequencies of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.6 Hz with a 17-cm stroke length. Reducing shaking frequency to 0.9 Hz resulted in more material being retained on the 19.0-mm sieve for all sample types, increasing the geometric mean. Increasing frequency to 1.6 Hz did not affect the geometric mean, but did result in a greater amount of corn silage falling through the 1.18-mm sieve. For alfalfa haylage, moisture content between 57.4 and 35.6% did not affect results; however, for corn silage, less moisture increased the percentage of particles less than 1.18 mm and decreased the geometric mean. For both sample types, further drying caused a greater proportion of small particles and a smaller geometric mean. We suggest using a third sieve and shaking at 1.1 Hz or greater with a stroke length of 17 cm when using the Penn State Particle Separator to analyze forage particle size.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0042809700&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0042809700&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73773-4

DO - 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73773-4

M3 - Article

VL - 86

SP - 1858

EP - 1863

JO - Journal of Dairy Science

JF - Journal of Dairy Science

SN - 0022-0302

IS - 5

ER -